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Introduction Performance in team sports is traditionally linked with the physical abilities and the technical skills of the players. As early as in 1970, a seminal research on the topic supported the hypothesis that physique was selective of athletic performance ( Carter, 1970 ). In volleyball, numerous studies have indicated that male and female players exhibit significant differences in anthropometric variables and somatotype components either between divisions or various levelsofcompetition ( Gualdi-Russo and Zaccagni, 2001 ; Malousaris et al., 2008 ) and
Market activity for today’s enterprises means continuing work to better understand the needs of their customers to provide them higher level of satisfaction. Building market advantages using a traditional approach based on material resources becoming less and less likely to increase competitiveness over the long term. The ability to use intangible assets, often more difficult to identify and manage, is becoming a key issue. Proper management of intangible assets can provide the company with unique market advantages that are unique, durable, and difficult to imitate. This study attempts to characterize selected dependencies between the nature of the actions undertaken by enterprises in relation to intellectual capital in the context of the strength of the level of competition in the market.
Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA) in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42) aged 24.5 (± 3.3), juniors (n=37) aged 16.8 (± 0.6), cadets (n=54) aged 14.5 (± 0.1) and children (n=50) aged 13.4 (± 0.2). A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets) to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors). The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively) and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively).
The starting hypothesis is that the market structure to a large extent determines the conduct and the level of the achieved performance of economic entities. The aim of this paper is to determine the theoretical and empirical correlation between market structure, conduct, and performance of economic entities. The paper provides an analytical overview of the mobile telecommunications market in the Republic of Serbia. By using different indicators (the Concentration ratio, the HHI, the Lorenz curve, and the Gini coefficient), the supply concentration in this market is measured and the nature of competition is analysed. By using statistical methods (correlation and simple linear regression analysis), the correlation between the variables, which confirmed the existence of a strong positive correlation between the degree of supply concentration on the market and the level of achieved performance is examined.
increased likelihood that relatively older youths were predominantly identified as being talented and selected for higher levelsofcompetition ( Ashworth and Heyndels, 2007 ; Schorer et al., 2013 ). Some evidence exists to suggest that this biased talent selection is a cause of RAE ( Sherar et al., 2007 ), when considering the consequences of being selected (or not selected) for the subsequent level of development ( Schorer et al., 2009 ). Therefore, research primarily has focused on the maturation-selection hypothesis, which is based on the idea that athletes born
The paper is sacrificed analysis of conditions organizational activity on e-commerce business and desired ways of management. Organizations on e-commerce business must be hyper-flexible because of stormy environment and high level of competition. Hyperflexibility means ability to creating new organizational forms so as to realization of different projects collaboration with other organizations and utilizing strange resources. The main condition of Hyperflexibility is pragmatic organizational culture and such its attributes as confidence, tolerance and fluent identity.
This paper studies the determinants of the total factor productivity (TFP) for Ukrainian firms in the manufacturing sector across macro-regions using recent micro-level datasets for 2013. Our empirical results show some degree of heterogeneity across Ukrainian macro-regions; in particular, the link between the total factor productivity, firm size, imports and the level of competition seems to be valid for all macro regions. However, the effects of private ownership status, capital intensity and exports seems to be region specific. In addition, we found no relationship between firm productivity and foreign ownership for any of the regions.
The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000-2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players' needs regarding the actions they perform. Player´s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females.
The aim of the paper is the presentation of theoretical foundations and the structure of original, 8-stage statics and dynamics model in the small business life cycle. Based on theoretical considerations, two hypotheses concerning the impact of dynamic and static nature of the life-cycle stages on selected determinants and effects of SMEs’ development were formulated. The hypotheses were verified based on the results of the survey conducted on a sample of 1,741 SMEs from 22 countries of the European Union. The results indicate that companies in the dynamic life-cycle stages are run by more enterprising owners, operate in more promising markets with a higher potential and make greater use of market niches thus limiting the level of competition. At the same time, such companies are characterised by higher levels of flexibility and involvement in innovative activities, which translates into obtaining a significantly higher level of business performance, in the area of quantitative as well as qualitative results.