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RJ. Levamisole receptor phosphorylation: effects of kinase antagonists on membrane potential responses in Ascaris suum suggest that CaM kinase and tyrosine kinase regulate sensitivity to levamisole. J Exp Biol. 2002, 205(24): 3979-3988. 22. Lalchhandama L: Nematocidal effects of piperazine and the extract of Acacia oxyphylla stem bark on the poultry nematode, Ascaridia galli. Pharmacologyonline 2008, 3: 864-869. 23. Tarbiat B: Ascaridia galli in laying hens: Adaptation of a targeted treatment strategy with attention to anthelmintic resistance. Doctoral thesis

References 1. Bednarek D., Kondracki M.: Influence of zinc and magnesium on leukocytic system and alkaline phosphatase activity in calves. Medycyna Wet 1994, 50, 500-502. 2. Brunner C.J., Muscoplat C.C.: Immunomodulatory effects of levamisole. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980, 176, 1159-1162. 3. Desplanter L.: Levamisole as an immunomodulator in the prevention of neonatal disease in newborn calves. 2nd Congress of EAVPT, Toulouse 1982, p. 99. 4. Gliński Z., Kostro K., Wołoszyn S.: Infectious diseases of animals. Part 2. Mycoses. Publ. AR, Lublin 2000. 5. Irwin M

inhibitors, orthovanadate and levamisole, inhibit induction of erythroid differentiation and abrogate the associated inhibition of glycolysis. Int. J. Oncol., 12, 987-996. 14. Bianco, P., Costantini, M., Dearden, L. C., & Bonucci, E. (1988). Alkaline phosphatase positive precursors of adipocytes in the human bone marrow. Br. J. Haematol., 68, 401-403. 15. Prince, M. H., Simmons, P. J., Whitty, G., Wall, D. P., Barber, L., Toner, G. C., Seymoour, R. F., Richardson, G., Mrongovius, R., & Haylock, D. N. (2004). Improved hematopoietic recovery following transplantation with ex

Summary

This study determined the efficacies of four classes of anthelmintics (AH) in a goat flock where anthelmintic resistance (AR) to ivermectin was suspected. We selected and randomly distributed 105 animals with >500 eggs per gram of feces into seven groups of 15 animals: an untreated control group and groups treated with ivermectin, eprinomectin, albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole, levamisole, and closantel. The goats were individually weighed and treated with the recommended dose. Fecal samples were collected 14 days post-treatment to determine the fecal egg counts and for a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Coprocultures were also performed for identifying any resistant genera. A molecular assay (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) was used to confirm benzimidazole resistance. The FECRTs for the ivermectin, eprinomectin, albendazole sulfoxide, and albendazole treatments were <90 %, indicating multiple anthelmintic resistance, all in Haemonchus spp. Levamisole had a FECRT confidence interval <90 %, indicating a moderate level of AR. The PCR detected the ß-tubulin alleles responsible for benzimidazole resistance, confirming AR. This study is the first monospecific report of AR in goats in Cuba, with a total failure of macrocyclic lactones anthelmintic class.

- Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 8: 893-896. Chen D., Ainsworth A. J. 1992 - Glucan administration potentiates immune defence mechanisms of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque - J. Fish Dis. 15: 295-304. Jeney G., Anderson D. P. 1993 - Enhanced immune response and protection in rainbow trout to Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin following prior immersion in immunostimulants - Fish Shellfish Immun. 3: 51-58. Kajita Y., Sakai M., Atsuta S., Kobayashi M. 1990 - The immunomodulatory effects of levamisole on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss - Fish Pathol. 25: 93

] Dobson, R. J., Griffiths, D. A., Donald, A. D., Waller, P. J. (1987): A genetic model describing the evolution of levamisole resistance in Trichostrongylus colubriformis, a nematode parasite of sheep. IMA J. Appl. Math., 4: 279–293 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/imammb/4.4.279 [6] Hubert, J., Kerboeuf, D. (1992): A microlarval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Vet. Rec., 130: 442–446 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.130.20.442 [7] Křížová, V., Nobilis, M., Prušková, L., Chládek, J., Szotáková, B., Cvilink, V., Skálová, L., Lamka

. Assessing intake by a children population. Pol J Vet Sci 2013, 16, 85-91. 17. Whelan M., Chirollo C., Furey A., Cortesi M.L,, Anastasio A,, Danaher M.: Investigation of the persistence of levamisole and oxyclozanide in milk and fate in cheese. J Agric Food Chem 2010, 58, 12204-12209.

Greece based on parasitological and performance criteria. Vet. Parasitol. , 164(1): 53 – 58. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.04.011 G illham , R.J., O bendorf , D.L. (1985): Therapeutic failure of levamisole in dairy goats. Aust. Vet. J. , 62(12): 426 – 427. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1985.tb14132.x G okbulut , C., Y alinkilinc , H.S., A ksit , D., V eneziano , V. (2014): Comparative pharmacokinetics of levamisole-oxyclozanide combination in sheep and goats following per os administration. Can. J. Vet. Res. , 78(4): 316-320. PMC4170771 G órski , P., N ižnikovski , R., S

. Thienpont D, Brugmans J, Abadi K, Tanamal S: Tetramisole in the treatment of nematode infections in man. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1969, 18: 520-525. 21. Van den Bossche H, Janssen PA: The biochemical mechanism of action of the anthelmintic drug tetramisole. Life Sci 1967, 6: 1781-1792. 22. Qian H, Martin RJ, Robertson AP: Pharmacology of N-, L-, and B-subtypes of nematode nAChR resolved at the single-channel level in Ascaris suum. FASEB J 2006, 20: 2606-2608. 23. Robertson AP, Bjorn HE, Martin RJ: Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. FASEB J 1999, 13

development test for detection of anthelmintic resistant nematodes Res. Vet. Sci 45 1 50 53 Coles, G.C., Folz, D., Tritschler, I.J.P. (1989): Motility response of levamisole/benzimidazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus larvae. Vet. Parasitol ., 31(3-4): 253 – 257 10.1016/0304-4017(89)90074-5 2763445 Coles GC Folz D Tritschler IJP 1989 Motility response of levamisole/benzimidazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus larvae Vet. Parasitol 31 3-4 253 257 Coles, G.C., Rhodes, A.C., Wolstenholme, A.J. (2005): Rapid selection for ivermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus