The natural environment, as a source of natural resources, has long been perceived as being a factor in determining the development of many states and regions, especially less developed areas. The main research question in this article is what role is played by natural resources and traditional industry sectors based on natural resources (milk production and tourism), in the process of establishing a competitive advantage for Podlaskie Voivodeship, which is one of the less developed regions in Poland. The results of the research reveal weaknesses that are inherent in earlier ways of thinking about these industries and, at the same time, emphasise the importance of making use of natural resources in an integrated way and combining them with new technologies.
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-Merta, A 2013, ‘Innowacje społeczne’, Konsumpcja i Rozwój, No 1/2013, pp.21-34. Perry, M 2010, Controversies in Local Economic Development. Stories, strategies, solutions, Routledge, London and New York. Porter, ME 1990, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, The Free Press, New York. Porter, ME 1998, Competitive Advantage. Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, The Free Press, New York. Pylak, K 2015, ‘Changing innovation process models: a chance to break out of path dependency for lessdevelopedregions’, Regional Studies, Regional Science, 2:1, pp. 46-72, DOI
Poland joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. By 2007, this had resulted in Poland being the greatest beneficiary of the European cohesion policy due to its low per capita GDP by purchasing power parity at the voivodeship level. The scale of European Structural and Investment Funds brought the possibility for a fundamental acceleration of socio-economic growth in Polish regions. The European Union gradually modified the directions of intervention under the framework of the European cohesion policy, initially orienting this activity principally towards cohesion, but from 2010 directing it mainly towards competitiveness. Of particular significance was the Europe 2020 strategy (2010). In Poland its arrangements were deferred until the signing of the Partnership Agreement for the period 2014-2020, which established extensive support for innovation, competitiveness and the R&D sector. In the final part of the paper, conclusions and recommendations for regional policy are elaborated.
In the discussion of regional development factors in recent years, more and more importance has been attributed to territory, locality, site specificity and endogenous resources, as evidenced on theoretical grounds by the concept of territorial capital (Camagni 2008) and regional, place-based policy. This article aims to identify the elements of territorial capital that play a key role in the process of changing the development path of an underdeveloped region - Podkarpackie - as well as ascertaining what consequences territorial capital has for development planning within regional policy. The research highlights the importance of the immobile and intangible development factors - a high level of social capital, extensive networks and the ability to cooperate - which have helped to eliminate the limitations resulting from the weakness of other factors (especially material factors, such as private capital and low GDP).
Regional policy has been on the agenda of Turkey since the First Five-Year Development Plan (1963–1967), and so far, Turkey has put into practice to overcome regional disparities, one of the most important is regional-sectoral incentives. Thus, the incentive system, which has undergone many changes until today, has been revised and updated in 2012. Although this incentive system has been put into practice for increasing the investment in eastern provinces/regions, development gap between eastern and western regions still stands. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the success of the new incentive system and to determine whether the new investment incentive system is effective in shifting investments from developed regions to backward regions in Turkey. In the study, the regional distribution of investment incentives during 2001–2016 and the effect of new investment incentive system to change the distribution of investments in favor of less developed provinces/regions will be examined. By using investment incentives data, regional distribution of investments will be revealed with the help of map-graph technique. The study found that both the share of incentive certificates and the share of the investment amount have increased during the period of 2001–2016 in the less developed provinces. From this point of view, it is possible to say that the new investment incentive system has a positive impact on increasing the share of incentives in these provinces.
Economics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3-42. Markowska, M & Strahl, D 2012, ‘Evaluation of the European Union regions convergence regarding innovation’, Argumenta Oeconomica, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 41-67. Myrdal, G 1968, Asian drama: an inquiry into the poverty of nations, Pantheon, New York. Perroux, F 1950, ‘Economic space: theory and applications’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 89-104. Pylak, K 2015, ‘Changing innovation process models: a chance to break out of path dependency for lessdevelopedregions’, Regional Studies, Regional Science, vol. 2, no. 1
The authors of the article consider regional labeling as a marketing tool which can contribute to the development of regional activities. These are focused mainly on traditional regional products and products. Their general popularity in prosperous regions is an important source of income for the inhabitants. In the less developed regions, it represents a significant stimulating tool of development. By means of a Slovak region of Gemer-Malohont as an example, the authors bring quantitative findings related to the preference of regional brands. They took into consideration the indicators of age, gender, education, monthly income and locality in connection with preference of regional products. They pointed to the fact that regional labeling has a mobilizing function to link and then jointly present its local activities. The behaviour of the population from the regions is an important recommendation for small producers and producers from less developed regions of Central Europe.
The majority of Central and Eastern European post-socialist countries acceded to the European Union in 2004. The integration of these economies to the Union had begun earlier, which was strengthened by grants from the Structural Funds after the accession. One of their aims is to facilitate the catching up processes of less developed regions and their convergence to the average of older member states. In our study, we examine the success of the catching up processes of the NUTS3 regions in the four Visegrad Group countries (V4), i.e., the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, between 2000 and 2014 to the average of the 15 initial member states of the European Union. Is there a process of catching up in each region, and if so, is it at a similar or a highly different rate? We analyze the development of GDP per capita at Purchasing Power Parity, and we examine disparities in the level of catching up using entropy-based Theil indexes. We provide a detailed analysis of two of the influencing factors of the catching up process of regions. Firstly, we look at whether the catching up process of the regions took place in a similar or very different way compared to the national average. Secondly, we examine how the size of the biggest city of the regions affected catching up, and whether the role of the biggest city of region can be shown.
Competitiveness of a region shows its ability to generate adequate amount of exports, on the one hand, and to ensure full employment and rising income levels of workers, on the other hand. In this context, it follows that productivity growth of locally-oriented economic activities is decisive for improving regional competitiveness. The paper starts with the premise that to understand the nature of the phenomenon of regional competitiveness, it is of great importance to know the basic theoretical postulates of endogenous growth theory. The paper examines the most significant messages of the theories of endogenous growth for the policy of regional competitiveness development (the growth of investment in education, training, research and development, i.e. investments in factors that decisively contribute to the commercialisation of knowledge in innovations). The aim of the paper is to present how each of these mechanisms influences the growing efficiency of accumulation of factors of regional economic growth, thanks to manifestation of various external effects. The importance of research is reflected in the quotation of conclusions of the supporters of endogenous explanation of growth that no economic convergence is necessary at all. In a word, economically more superior regions can smoothly improve competitiveness and raise the living standards of their inhabitants, while economically less developed regions can always be poor and insufficiently competitive. This is also a very strong message of the creators of regional policies.