László Miklós, Zita Izakovičová, Monika Offertálerová and Viktória Miklósová
The most frequent natural disasters in Slovakia are related to climatic events, in particular to the sudden intensive rains, quick run-off and unbalanced water regime. They induce soil erosion and accumulation, flash floods, landslides, overwhelming waterlogging and also draught. Since these events have an impact throughout the whole landscape - the forest, agricultural and urban landscape, which are under the management of different sectors, the integration of the sectoral planning tools for the mitigation of their consequences is inevitable. Integration is a difficult process of dual character: it requires the development of landscape-ecological methods applicable to land management tools on one side and the creation of legal provisions ensuring the transfer of those scientific principles to legislation, on the other side. This paper deals with both sides of this process in Slovakia.
Aurelija Pūraitė, Daiva Bereikienė and Neringa Šilinskė
In the past few years the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in Lithuania has significantly increased. However, enjoying the advantages of this technology, which improves society’s socio-economical safety (public safety in a broad sense), raises some privacy concerns. This article analyses European Union and national legal regulations regarding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as legal tools for defence of the right to privacy or prevention from its breaches in the Republic of Lithuania. Unmanned aerial vehicles have become popular only recently; thus, legislation regarding their use has not yet become a common topic among lawyers. Furthermore, case law of the Republic of Lithuania is silent about it. Thus, the authors model a situation of breach of privacy using an unmanned aerial vehicle and analyse possible defence mechanisms.
Sustainable development has increasingly entered into the Arctic context. For Russia, the Arctic means enormous natural resources and potential for the country’s social and economic well-being. The focus of this paper is the dynamics of environmental and Arctic legislation in Russia; attention is also given to the rationale and justification of legal implications of sustainable development in the Russian Arctic. Specifically, it discusses barriers in transitioning to sustainable development and estimates relevant legal tools used over the last three decades applicable to the Arctic territories. The general idea is that despite strong political will to promote sustainable development, Russia’s unstable economy has impeded the country’s sustainability development objectives. Consequently, resource-based development is prioritized over environmental concerns and puts environmentally fragile territories, like the Arctic, at great risk. The research methods include context analysis of the Russian federal and regional laws and contextual interviews at the federal and regional government levels. The results of the research are the identification of achievements and deficiencies in the rule of law related to sustainable development of the Russian Arctic as well as policy recommendations for public authorities. The paper outlines that as long as Russian legislation lacks specific rules addressing sustainability in the Russian Arctic, it would be difficult for the government to implement international principles of sustainable development across this territory.
Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm) Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of knowledge in University- Firm Technology Transfer process?
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between the ambitious agendas of revitalization and its actual practice: the transformative capacity of the notion of revitalization has atrophied. The head of a revitalization program in a major Polish city complained to me recently that revitalization, despite the increased funding and better legaltools, has been conceptually reduced to ‘the classical triumvirate of façade renovations, club meetings for the elderly, and – necessarily – a market square with a fountain’.
While there are many legitimate reasons for criticizing ideological keywords, there are also many
characteristic for the land management topic. Firstly, land management always takes place in the sphere of convergence of public and private interests represented by public and private stakeholders. In general, the balance between private and public powers is fixed in laws (e.g. constitution, property law and building law) and becomes concrete in legaltools (pre-emption rights, re-allocation rights, and expropriation rights). In specific development projects, the balance finally is created by the negotiation of private and public stakeholders. In these cooperative approaches
brought up a space for today’s intraregional communication, reflected not only in an intraregional migration but also by the gradual multilevel regionwide networking mirrored in today’s strong linkages within the Pacific Rim communities and New Zealand, stressed and legally expressed by the introduction and application of dual citizenship politics. I see a dual citizenship guaranteed and provided by New Zealand to a group of its Pacific neighbors as one of the most effective, visible, and enhancing instruments in the regional identity building when understood as a legal