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Study of Night Ventilation Efficiency in Urban Environment: Technical and Legal Aspects

). Measures for the improvement of energy performance and energy saving in public sector (in Greek) , 2008. Maria, E. A., Kolokotsa, D. The legal framework of energy efficiency in buildings and its implementation in the Hellenic legal reality: Critical thoughts and observations, Energy and Law (in Greek). , 2009, vol. 11, p. 7-20. Joint Ministerial Decision D6/B/5825/9-4-2010. Official Government Gazette (2010b). Regulation on Energy Performance of the Building (REPB)" , 2010. Presidential

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Tax evasion between fraud and legality

Abstract

This paper focuses on detailing the general coordinates regarding tax evasion and the necessity of creating a common unitary European legal framework. Accounting information might mirror erroneously in a certain measure the micro to macroeconomic tendency of fraud by showing a gross image of available resources. It is of the utmost importance to become fully aware of causes for illicit practices, ways to fight any fraud attempts and to evaluate the accounting mechanism that both creates and identifies tax evasion.

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Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

Abstract

There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC) are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i) what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii) which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii) how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

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Artistic Factor in Modern-Day Urban Planning and Design in Lithuania

Abstract

The issue of city modelling is very essential these days and it is important to analyse the legal framework and its practical implications in the process of city modelling. However, the practice of urban design in Lithuania is based on two-dimensional solutions and the artistic factor is overlooked. The article reviews the legal basis of Lithuanian urban planning and design and their practical implications and emphasizes the necessity of artistic factor during the process of city modelling.

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Comparative Pedagogical Analysis of Professional Training for Masters in Cybersecurity in Ukraine and the UK

Abstract

The article deals with the relevant problem of updating the system of graduate training (master’s degree) in Ukraine. It analyzes the ways of Ukraine’s integration into the European Higher Education Area and the legal framework of higher education in Ukraine and the UK. It also presents a comparative pedagogical analysis of the features of professional training for Masters in Cybersecurity in different areas, as well as the structural, content, organizational and pedagogical principles of master programmes on cybersecurity at the universities of Ukraine and the UK. It is found that the most significant difference is the decentralized management of educational processes at the administrative level. The analysis of the legal framework of higher education shows that it is much better developed in Ukraine than in the UK due to the centralized management of education. The article proves that a significant difference between master programmes on cybersecurity in Ukraine and the UK is their level of specialization. The programmes on the investigation of computer incidents and information technology security are most prevalent at UK universities. It is specified that the number, list and names of educational courses differ significantly, which is explained primarily by the differences in the conceptual framework of the profession itself, the social needs of Ukrainian and British society in such specialists and the ways of promoting this profession in the labour market. Some positive aspects of the organization of master training in cybersecurity in the UK are emphasized. Some promising areas in professional training of Masters in Cybersecurity in Ukraine and the UK are singled out.

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Born or Made? An Overview of the Social Status and Professional Training of Hungarian Interpreters in Romania

Abstract

There is a recurrent debate in the scholarly literature on interpreting studies: are interpreters made or bom? While classical interpreting schools state that great interpreters are bom and that formation and development is of a secondary importance, the newest publications on this topic place a much greater stress on the formation and development of interpreting abilities, skills, and competences. The latest results also challenge several ideas and stereotypes concerning the personality and attitudes of interpreters. This article outlines the position and situation regarding Hungarian interpreters in Romania with a special regard to the legal framework, and to the present state of professional training. The study also discusses why interpreters of Hungarian are much more likely to be bom in Romania, and not made, (a factor that hinders the professionalization of Hungarian interpreters in Romania). Equally significant are the legislative loopholes which enable untrained individuals to perform interpreting activities (even economic activities), the result of which is a significantly poorer image of the profession, and a lowering of the quality of work it produces. We also give a short overview of the translation and interpreting programmes. As the majority of the Hungarian population in Romania reside in Transylvania, we confine our overview to Transylvanian universities.

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Balkan Candidate Countries Running for Fiscal Consolidation: Legal Frameworks vs. Economic Results

Legal Framework and Economic Results by the Candidate Balkan Countries, JOR: Jahrbuch fur Ostreht, Band 59, ISSN 0075–2746, Verlag C.H. Beck, IOR Munchen. Ministry of Finance of Albania (2017), Public Financial Management Strategy 2014–2020: 2016 Monitoring Report , Government of Albania. Treaty on European Union, Official Journal C 191, 29.7.1992. Treaty on Stability, Coordination, and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union, agreed at the EU summit of 30 January 2012, signed on 2 March by the Heads of State or Government of all EU countries

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How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

Abstract

The Republic of Macedonia (RM) has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA), a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU) is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to create a well structured and operating one, based on international and institutional experiences.

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Eu Agrarian Policy Legal Framework as a Part of the Eu Development Practice / Právny Rámec Agrárnej Politiky Eú Ako Súčasť Eú Rozvojovej Praxe

Abstract

EU agrarian policy is one of the most extensive policies of the EU. The aim of this paper is to analyse the EU agrarian policy legal framework from the point of view of law & development concept. Final remarks are based on an analysis of three topics: (1st) law & development concept, (2nd) agrarian policies and development, and (3rd) EU concept of development. Results show position of the EU agrarian policy legal framework in the EU development practice. The EU agrarian policy legal framework might be labelled as “law in development”. Several instruments have been implemented, but their impact on development is not unequivocal. There is no doubt about role of law in development as well as that the EU agricultural policy is core policy for development of the EU regions. Based on interconnections and justification we can argue that the EU agrarian policy legal framework is a substantial part of internal EU development concept and practice.

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The Ethics of Reciprocity in the Light of the German and the English Charitable Sector and Emerging Trends in European Philanthropic Governance

Abstract

The lively debate about European cross-border donations and the European philanthropic landscape that has been started has seemingly reached a slight standstill since the global financial crisis and austerity plans are dominating the every day discussion. However, the European non-profit sector remains an area that is of crucial importance for the European labour market, the European Research Area, and most importantly, the participation of European civil society which directly influences questions of citizenship and European identity. The paper will compare the origin and legal framework of the English and the German charitable foundations and link it to the EU’s third sector where the European Foundation Centre (EFC) as a key representative for civil society actors in the non-profit area and the Commission play a pivotal role in the establishment of a European Foundation Statute (FE) that is meant to facilitate cross-border donations and non-profit activities throughout the EU. In the concluding part, the wider meaning of a strong third sector in the EU will be analysed.

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