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:// 29. Muilenburg, L. Y., & Berge, Z. L. (2005). Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study. Distance Education, 26 (1), 29-48. 30. Najafi, H., Rolheiser, C., Harrison, L., & Heikoop, W. (2018). Connecting Learner Motivation to Learner Progress and Completion in Massive Open Online Courses. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 44 (2), n2. 31. NMC Horizon Report (2017). NMC Horizon Report: 2017 Higher Education Edition. Retrieved from 32. Padilla-MeléNdez, A., Del Aguila

social interaction type (vicarious, direct) on learner motivation, attitudes, social comparisons, affect and learning performance. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Tallahassee: Florida State University. Esgin, E. (2010). Sanal eğitsel ajanlara ait özelliklerin akademik başarı, teknik kullanışlılık ve duygusal tutumlara olan etkilerinin incelenmesi. [Ph.D. Thesis.] İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi. Gilbert, J., Wilson, D. M., & Gupta, P. (2005). Learning C with Adam. International Journal on E-Learning, 4 (3), 337-350. Gulz, A. (2004). Benefits of virtual characters in computer based


This study is aimed at creating a general technique for the formation of learners’ interest in physics in the context of sustainable development of education. The active means of training and active learning methods are the components of this technique. The sequence of interest formation for physics in the context of sustainable development of education was analyzed. This scheme shows the transition from a situational interest to an individual interest. Short-term objective is the formation of learners’ interest in physics as a school subject. Long-term objective is the formation of learners’ interest in physics as a science. Results proved that proposed technique increases the level of motivational component of the learners’ cognitive activity in physics teaching. This general technique can also be used in teaching other natural sciences (e.g., Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Ecology).


Objective: This paper sets out to examine language learner identity in a global context, by first analysing the dominant position of English in the world today and then in the light of this, revisiting the concepts which aim to describe how individuals are motivated to learn English.

Methodology: The paper is based on research findings as documented in numerous studies, for example Smit & Dafouz (2012) and Wächter & Maiworm (2014).

Findings: The findings emphasise the fact that the hegemony of English in the world today, where around 400 million people use English as a first language, shows no sign of diminishing. In fact, issues surrounding the consequences of globalisation make the place of English in the world ever more solidified, however the contexts and the purposes for which it used are changing.

Value added: By examining certain aspects of the powerful position of English today, this paper proposes the view that conceptions of specific motivational aspects of language learner identity are no longer as valid as they once were.

Recommendations: The paper recommends that a new theorizing of learner identity, with specific focus on L2 learner motivation, needs to be considered.


Objective: Assessment is a crucial part of language teaching, with great effect on learners’ motivation, willingness to study and learning success. Since language assessment is rooted in local policies and cultures of learning, it seems pertinent to look at how opinions on assessment can differ depending on the country of teacher training. The purpose of the paper is to compare Polish and Turkish teacher trainees’ on L1 use and translation in testing.

Methodology: The methodology applied in the paper is a qualitative action research study, where the groups of teacher trainees from Poland and Turkey participating in a telecollaborative project were prompted for reflection on different aspects of cultural appropriacy of language assessment. The data were collected via private diaries and public discussion forums. The corpus of student reflections was subject to qualitative analysis for key concepts, recurrent themes, similarities and differences across the two countries involved in analysis.

Findings: The effect of the local setting in which language instruction is to take place on assessment beliefs and strategies is stronger than that of teacher training. The language testing procedures of the Communicative Approach vary in the two countries under consideration (Poland and Turkey) due to a differing role and status of English in the country, cultural orientations of the society, preferred learning styles and habits, country openness to the Western culture and values as well as societal expectations towards the language teacher. Despite much standardization in language teacher education, significant variation in the shape of language teaching methodology can be attributed to the effect of cultural differences.

Value Added: Telecollaboration in teacher training is promoted as an instructional technique enabling expansion of teacher trainees’ intercultural competence, intercultural communication skills, awareness of the effect of cultural differences on preferred ways of learning and teaching. The cultural appropriacy of language assessment can be achieved through filtering testing methods and techniques to adapt them to the cultural, political and social reality of target users.

Recommendations: The telecollaborative exchange as described in the present paper proves to be an effective vehicle to achieve the purpose of increasing internalization of teacher education and creating better skilled professionals. Since language teaching has become a largely multicultural and multilingual experience, it is necessary to increase teacher trainees’ awareness of cultural appropriacy of its different aspects, including assessment, throughout the teacher training programme.

Music Teaching and Learning: 2000–2005 , in International Handbook of Research in Arts Education , L. Bresler (Ed.), pp. 1311–1328, Springer. 12. Y. Ju Joo, S. Joung, H. S. Son (2013), Structural relationships among effective factors on e-learnersmotivation for skill transfer , in Computers in Human Behavior , vol. 32, Issue null, pp. 335-342, University of Minnesota 13. A. K. M. N. Islam (2016), E-learning system use and its outcomes: Moderating role of perceived compatibility in Telematics and Informatics , vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 48–55, Elsevier

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lisans tezi), Marmara Üniversitesi/Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. Littlejohn A. (2008). The tip of the iceberg: factors affecting learner motivation. Regional language centre journal, 39(2): 214-225. Otdü-Sem. (1998). İnsan kaynakları yönetimi eğitim semineri ders notu, ODTÜ, Ankara. Örücü, E., Kılıç, R. & Kılıç. T. (2007). Cam tavan sendromu ve kadınların üst düzey yönetici pozisyonuna yükselmelerindeki engeller. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. yönetim ve ekonomi dergisi, 14(2): 117-135. Pamukoğlu, E. (2004). Duygusal zekanın yönetici etkinliğindeki rolünün

. Glazer (ed.), Training, research and education , 87–136. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Cook, Vivian. 2016. Transfer and relationships between the languages of multi-competence. In: Rosa Alonso Alonso (ed.), Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition, 66–90. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Csizér, Kata. 2007. A nyelvtanulási motiváció vizsgálata. Angolul és németül tanuló diákok motivációs beállítódása a nyelvválasztás tükrében [Examining language learning motivation. English and German language learnersmotivational attitudes towards

. TESOL Quarterly , 20 (2), 287. Kagan, O. (2012). Intercultural competence of heritage language learners: Motivation, identity, language attitudes, and the curriculum. Proceedings of Intercultural Competence Conference , 2 , 72–84. Kagan, O., & Dillon, K. (2004). Heritage speakers’ potential for high-level language proficiency. In H. Byrnes & H. Maxim (Eds.), Advanced foreign language learning: A challenge to college programs . Boston, MA: Heinli/Thompson. Kondo-Brown, K. (2005). Differences in language skills: Heritage language learner subgroups and foreign