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Management of Disused Lead-Acid Batteries in the Context of the Eco-Balance Analysis

recovery of batteries of the 18 July 2017 on the specific requirements for the processing of the disused car lead-acid batteries, used lead-acid automotive accumulators, worn-out industrial lead-acid batteries or lead-acid batteries and installations for recycling lead and its compounds or recycling plastics, Journal of Laws 2017, item 1474, 2017. [13] Spanos, C., Turney, D. E., Fthenakis, V., Life − cycle analysis of flow-assisted nickel − zinc, manganese dioxide, and valve − regulated leadacid batteries designed for demand − charge reduction

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Lead Toxicity in a Family as a Result of Occupational Exposure

Lead Toxicity in a Family as a Result of Occupational Exposure

This article describes an entire family manufacturing lead acid batteries who all suffered from lead poisoning. The family of five lived in a house, part of which had been used for various stages of battery production for 14 years. Open space was used for drying batteries. They all drank water from a well located on the premises. Evaluation of biomarkers of lead exposure and/or effect revealed alarming blood lead levels [(3.92±0.94) μmol L-1], 50 % reduction in the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase [(24.67±5.12) U L-1] and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin [(1228±480) μg L-1]. Liver function tests showed an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase [(170.41±41.82) U L-1]. All other liver function test parameters were normal. Renal function tests showed an increase in serum uric acid [(515.81±86.29) μmol L-1] while urea and creatinine were normal. Serum calcium was low [(1.90±0.42) mmol L-1 in women and (2.09±0.12) mmol L-1 in men], while blood pressure was high in the head of the family and his wife and normal in children. Lead concentration in well water was estimated to 180 μg L-1. The family was referred to the National Referral Centre for Lead Poisoning in India, were they were received treatment and were informed about the hazards of lead poisoning. A follow up three months later showed a slight decrease in blood lead levels and a significant increase in haemoglobin. These findings can be attributed to behavioural changes adopted by the family, even though they continued producing lead batteries.

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Some problems of aircraft’s lead-acid batteries/Wybrane zagadnienia z ekspoatacji lotniczych pokładowych kwasowych baterii akumulatorowych

Streszczenie

W artykule omówiono zagadnienia związane z eksploatacją lotniczych pokładowych elektrycznych baterii akumulatorowych, elementów pojemnika-kontenera oraz elementów obwodów elektrycznych łączących tę baterię z układem rozruchu i zapłonu. Główną uwagę skupiono na przypadkach eksploatacyjnego uszkadzania się baterii. Dokonano analizy niektórych przypadków nieudanych rozruchów i przedstawiono próbę znalezienia przyczyn. Wspomniano również o wpływie zwiększonej rezystancji przyłączy minusowych, pokładowych baterii akumulatorowych na niektóre „niedomagania” lotniczych pokładowych baterii akumulatorowych. Osobny rozdział poświęcono złączom wysokoprądowym pokładowej elektrycznej baterii akumulatorowej. Zaproponowano wymianę złączy wysokoprądowych „starego” systemu na złącza zgodne ze standardem NATO. Złącza standardu NATO w praktyce eliminują eksploatacyjne zużywanie się styku wysokoprądowego.

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Automatic Measurement for Internal Resistance of Battery in Uninterruptible Power Source

References Источники питания аппаратуры СЦБ. Функциональные схемы. В. Карев. 11th Conference of Young Scientists of Lithuania "Science-Lithuania's Future. TRANSPORT" VGTU 2009. Study of the internal resistance in a lead-acid battery cells. P. Krivak, P. Bacha. Institute of Electrotechnology, Technical University of Brno, 602 00 Brno

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Electromechanical Battery EMB Mass Minimization taking into Account its Electrical Machines Rotor Energy

Abstract

In this paper the electromechanical battery (EMB) with synchronous machine is described. Theoretically, if electrical machines rotor stored energy is known, it is possible to reduce the flywheel mass of electromechanical battery. For example, the efficiency of energy recovery (kilowatt-hours out versus kilowatthours in) in nowadays appliances exceeds 95 % which is considerably better than of any electrochemical battery, such as lead-acid battery. For the rotor stored energy amount calculation, it is necessary to find all geometrical dimensions of the electrical machine. To achieve this goal the iterative calculation method was used. Electromechanical battery mass was analyzed as a discharge process rotation speed function. Taking into account the rotor stored energy, we can increase the minimum rotation speed thus reducing the electrical machine mass and increasing the flywheel mass, which provides EMB cost reduction. Additionally, the possibilities of using numerical approximation calculations of magnetization curves are discussed. Each iteration of numerical application necessary for the method for rapid calculation is essential when calculating the field problems. Nowadays there are a lot of computer added design programs for electromagnetic field calculation in different types of applications, electrical machines and apparatus. For the electromagnetic field calculation process some more commonly used magnetization curve approximation methods are described, and the machine calculation time is tested for different numbers of calculations.

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A Fast Method of Identifying Rechargeable Batteries Condition and Defects

References Barsoukov, E. and Macdonald, J. R. (2005). Impedance Spectroscopy Theory, Experiment, and Applications. 2nd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 444-468. Depernet, D., Oumar, B., Berthon, A. (2012). Online impedance spectroscopy of lead acid batteries for storage management of a standalone power plant. Journal of Power Sources, 219, pp. 65-74. Ferg, E., Rossouw, C., Loyson, P. (2013). The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison

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Nonlinear state observers and extended Kalman filters for battery systems

Scarsi, R. (2001). Discrete-time battery models for system-level low-power design, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 9 (5): 630-640. Bhangu, B., Bentley, P., Stone, D. and Bingham, C. (2005). Nonlinear observers for predicting state-of-charge and state-of-health of lead-acid batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 54 (3): 783-794. Bo, C., Zhifeng, B. and Binggang, C. (2008). State of charge estimation based on evolutionary neural network, Journal of Energy

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Active Battery Balancing for Battery Packs

. [8] Krein, P.T.; Balog, R.S.; "Life extension through charge equalization of lead-acid batteries", Telecommunications Energy Conference, 2002. INTELEC. 24th Annual International, pp. 516- 523, 2002. [9] Hopkins, D.C.; Mosling, C.R.; Hung, S.T.; "Dynamic equalization during charging of serial energy storage elements", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.29, no.2, pp.363-368, Mar/Apr 1993. [10] Bentley, W.F.; "Cell balancing considerations for lithium-ion battery systems", Battery Conference on Applications and Advances

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The revised potential – pH diagram for Pb – H2O system

of Metallurgy and Materials 60 (2015) 95-100. [12]. P. Ness, Gegenwärtiger Stand der Forschungsarbeiten an positiven Elektroden in Bleiakkumulatoren [Current standing of the research work on positive electrodes in lead storage batteries], Electrochimica Acta 12 (1967) 161 - 178 (In German). [13]. J. Garche, Passivation of the positive electrode of the lead/acid battery: a consequence of self-discharge, Journal of Power Science 30 (1990) 47- 54. [14]. R.D. Prengaman, New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling

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Clinical, Haematological, and Neurocognitive Findings in Lead-Exposed Workers of a Battery Plant in Iran

regions of Iran. Food Control 2008;19:495-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.05.015 22. Pourjafar M, Rahnama R, Shakhse-Niaie M. Lead profi le in blood and hair from cattle,environmentally exposed to lead around Isfahan oil industry, Iran. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2008;3:36-41. doi: 10.3923/ajava.2008.36.41 23. Were FH, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM, Wafula GA, Moturi CM. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya. J Occup Environ Hyg 2012;9:340-4. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2012.673458 24

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