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References 1. Shellie R, Mondello L, Marriott P, Dugo G. Characterization of lavender essential oils by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with correlation of linear retention indices and comparison with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2002; 970:225-234. 2. Śmigielski K, Sikora M, Majewska M, Raj A. The application of essentials oils to natural and organic cosmetics. Pol J Cosmetology 2008; 11:89-107. 3. Boelens MH. Chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula Oils. Perf Flav 1995; 20:23-25. 4. Śmigielski K, Raj A

serricorne (Fabricius)(Coleoptera: Anobiidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38, 467-473. Hummelbrunner LA, Isman MB (2001): Acute, sublethal, antifeedant, and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lep, Noctuidae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 715-720. doi: 10.1021/jf000749t. Jaenson TG, Garboui S, Pålsson K (2006): Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field

. J., Kemper K. J. (2001) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) The Longwood Herbal Task Force and The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research). 32 pp. Available at: http://www.longwoodherbal.org/lavender/lavender.pdf Crane E., Walker P., Day R. (1984) Directory of Important World Honey Sources. International Bee Research Association. London. 384 pp. El-Karemy Z. A., Zayed K. M. (1992) Distribution of Plant Communities Across Al Abna Escarpment, SW Saudi Arabia. Phyton (Horn, Austria) 32 (1): 79-101. Forler S. (2013) Lavender Honey. Honey Traveler. Available at

–136. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.06.052. Cavanagh HMA, Wilkinson JN (2002): Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research, 16, 301–308. Chen Q, Xu S, Wu T, Guo J, Sha S, Zheng X, Yu T (2014): Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 2441–2447. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6576. Cho J, Bae RN, Lee SK (2010): Current research status of postharvest technology of onion ( Allium cepa L.). Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology

., S harifan A., T ehrani M.S., 2011. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia isolated by solvent free microwave assisted extraction and hydrodistillation. J. Food Biosci. Tech. Islamic Azad Univ. Sci. Res. Branch 1, 19-24. A daszyńska -S kwirzyńska M., S warcewicz M., D obrowolska A., 2014. The potential of use lavender from vegetable waste as effective antibacterial and sedative agents. Med. Chem. 4(11), 734-737. A l -B akhit A.A., S awwan J.S., A l -M ahmoud M.S., 2007. In vitro propagation of two

Abstract

Lavender cotton (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) shoot cuttings, obtained from two-year-old mother plants, were rooted in five different media under an unheated foil tunnel. Two ready-made and widely recommended media were used: Hartmann peat substrate and Ceres peat-coconut substrate, as well as three prepared mixtures: high peat + mineral soil, high peat + perlite and high peat + sand. The influence of medium type on the number of rooted cuttings and the quality of the root system was assessed for two cultivation times during a three-year study after eight weeks from the date of cutting. As far as the ready-made rooting substrates are concerned, Ceres peat-coconut substrate turned out to be better when compared with the Hartmann substrate. The number of high quality rooted cuttings was larger when media containing high peat mixed with either mineral soil or sand were used in comparison with the mixture of high peat and perlite.

References Adaszyńska M., Swarcewicz M., Dzięcioł M., Dobrowolska A., 2013. Comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of lavender varieties from Poland. Nat. Prod. Res. 27(16): 1497-1501. Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska M., Swarcewicz M., Dobrowolska A., 2014. The potential of use lavender from vegetable waste as effective antibacterial and sedative agents. Med. Chem. 4(11): 734-737. Adsersen A., Gauguin B., Gudiksen L., Jager, A.K., 2006. Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory

:132-137. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.01.019 11. Sienkiewicz M, Głowacka A, Kowalczyk E, Wiktorowska-Owczarek A, Jóźwiak-Bębenista M, Łysakowska M. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils. Molecules 2014; 19(12):20929-20940. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules191220929 12. European Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 3, Maissonneuve SA: Sainte-Ruffine, 1975:68. 13. De Billerbeck VG. Huiles essentielles et bactéries résistantes aux antibiotiques. Phytothérapie 2007; 5(5):249–253. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10298-007-0265-z 14

Summary

Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., have a wide host range and are common in the Mediterranean area. Cultivated lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) was found naturally infested by M. hapla in Kozani area, the first documented infestation of this crop by RKN in Greece. Oxalis pescaprae, a common winter weed in Crete, was found to be a host of M. javanica under artificial inoculation. This weed acts as a potential winter host of the nematode in fields cultivated with vegetable crops. Two populations of M. ethiopica were found in kiwi and maize in Greece in the past. Recently, populations of M. ethiopica from Europe were re-classified as M. luci, based only on the population isolated from kiwi for Greece. In the current work, the RKN populations originating from kiwi and maize and maintained on tomato, were identified as M. luci. Nematode species identification was determined by electrophoretic analysis of protein extracts obtained from females.

Growth Inhibition of Aspergillus Ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium Expansum ZMPBF 565 by Four Essential Oils

Fungi produce a large variety of extracellular proteins, organic acids, and other metabolites and can adapt to several environmental conditions. Mycotoxin-producing moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are common food contaminants. One of the natural ways to protect food from mould contamination is to use essential oils. In this study, we evaluated the effect of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender, rosemary, and sage at 1 % (v/v) concentration in yeast media inoculated with spores (final concentration 106 mL-1 media) of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565, alone or in combination, on fungal biomass. Cinnamon showed the best inhibitory effect (100 %). Lavender oil best inhibited the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus (nearly 100 %), and was less successful with Penicillium expansum (having dropped to 57 % on day 28). With cultivation time the inhibitory effect of sage and rosemary oil grew for Aspergillus ochraceus and dropped for Penicillium expansum.

These results suggest that fungi can be controlled with essential oils, especially with cinnamon oil.