The growth of rural population, to the detriment of cities in Poland is caused mainly by agglomeration processes, including suburbanisation. Consequently, intense and sudden changes in demographic structure of large cities and surrounding regions are observed. The paper presents demographic changes in the largest Polish cities. The aim of the study was to verify whether the phenomenon of population aging was more distinct in large cities than in surrounding municipalities. We also aimed to answer the question of how changes in demographic processes should shape the social policy pursued by authorities in large cities. Discussion covers activities rising out of demographic challenges to meet the needs in the field of “services” for children and increasing demand for ventures related to care for the elderly. The analysis includes selected areas of the education, health care and social assistance fields.
The aim of this paper is an attempt of explanation basic factors of depopulation in case of cities in Poland in the 20st and in the beginning of 21st century. Author takes into consideration only large urban centers with population more than 50 thousands inhabitants. Population changes are described according to historical periods: 1900-1946 (including World War II), postwar period (1946-1989) and period socio-economic and political changes in Poland (1990-2010). A key question is basic thesis that different determinants of depopulation have two sources: internal as well as external ones. Some of them arise only in defined periods and social-economic conditions. The most important have been underlined in this paper. It has been highlighted that is visible different between simply depopulation of cities as consequence of military operations, for example and contemporary urban shrinkage as an effect of compound social-economic background. Paper gives some reflections on different possibilities for defense of cities not only against consequences of the second demographic transition but also functional changes, especially in case of larger post-industrial centers. Important question that have been underlined in paper is problem of urban shrinkage as contemporary dimension of depopulation. Presented information clearly shows that in demographic terms process of contemporary shrinkage is comparable with urban demographic decline of the WW2 period.
Biedronka stores are located in Warsaw alone. The first store of those mentioned above was established back in 1996, in Warsaw’s Mokotów District. Initially, the chain’s development was very slow. The stores were usually established in smaller towns, and in the suburbs of largecities. Thus, up until the year 2000, only 8 shops of this type were opened in Warsaw ( Figure 1 ). These stores were located in the suburbs, using existing commercial infrastructure located within residential areas. Some of them were also placed in an individual detached building, with a bright
This study aimed to measure the cultural intelligence of physical education (PE) teachers’ work adjustment in primary and secondary schools in a large city in Iran (Isfahan). The method of this research was descriptive (correlation) and the total population included all of the PE teachers at three educational levels in Isfahan in 1393 (2014) (N= 559). Participants (N= 226) were selected by using the stratified random sampling method according to the total population of the PE teachers in all six educational regions of Isfahan. A self-constructed cultural intelligence questionnaire (20 items) as well as a work adjustment scale (Davis & Lofqist, 1991) including 20 items were employed in this research. The regression and correlation tests were used for analyzing data. The results indicated that cultural intelligence significantly affects the PE teachers’ work adjustment. There was also a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and the PE teachers’ work adjustment.
During the years 1994–2009, the number of White Stork pairs breeding in the city of Wrocław (293 km2) fluctuated between 5 pairs in 1999 and 19 pairs 2004. Most nests were clumped in two sites in the Odra river valley. Two nests were located only cca. 1 km from the city hall. The fluctuations in numbers can be linked to the availability of feeding grounds and weather. In years when grass was mowed in the Odra valley, the number of White Storks was higher than in years when the grass was left unattended. Overall, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair during the years 1995–2009 was slightly higher in the rural than in the urban area. Contrary to expectation, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair was the highest in the year of highest population density. In two rural counties adjacent to Wrocław, the number of breeding pairs was similar to that in the city in 1994/95 (15 vs. 13 pairs). However, in 2004 the number of breeding pairs in the city almost doubled compared to that in the neighboring counties (10 vs. 19 pairs). After a sharp decline between 2004 and 2008, populations in both areas were similar in 2009 (5 vs. 4 pairs), but much lower than in 1994–1995. Wrocław is probably the only large city (>100,000 people) in Poland, where the White Stork has developed a sizeable, although fluctuating, breeding population. One of the most powerful role the city-nesting White Storks may play is their ability to engage directly citizens with nature and facilitate in that way environmental education and awareness.
The demographic characteristics of "shrinking" processes in large Slovak cities, as well as the awareness of such shrinkage processes in local development planning, is the subject of this article. Population loss, together with other demographic indicators, clearly documents such a trajectory in urban development. In spite of this reality, there is only limited reflection of the "shrinking" in planning documents of cities approved by town councils. Some reasons for this decreased sensitivity to the complex problem of shrinking cities include missing relevant information (e.g. demographic prognoses), the milder forms of "shrinking" in Slovakia, the absence of political acceptance of the process by local elites, and the dominant-growth oriented planning practices.
Agnieszka Szczepańska, Adam Senetra and Monika Wasilewicz
Environmental factors are among the key determinants of real estate prices. They include landscape attractiveness, land relief, exposure to sunlight and proximity to natural features. In large urban centers, traffic noise emissions significantly affect decision-making on the real estate market. Weakly developed road networks and the absence of ring roads that shift road traffic outside residential districts are a widespread problem in the cities of Central-Eastern Europe. The prevention of traffic noise pollution, one of the key environmental problems in Europe, is an important goal of European Union policy. This paper analyzes the correlations between apartment prices and traffic noise levels in Olsztyn, the capital city of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship (province) in north-eastern Poland. A linear correlation analysis was performed, and the distribution of unit prices of apartments was mapped by ordinary kriging.
Dubravka Jurlina Alibegović, Sabina Hodžić and Emira Bečić
, 167 – 188.
Jurlina Alibegović, D., S. Hodžić and E. Bečić. 2018. “Limited Fiscal Autonomy of Croatian LargeCities.” Lex Localis-Journal of Local Self Government 16(1), 107 – 128.
Karanikolas, P. and S. Hatzipantel. 2010. “The Decentralization Process of Development Policy in Greece.” European Planning Studies 18(3), 411 – 434.
Kim, J., J. Lotz and H. Blöchliger. 2013. “Measuring Fiscal Decentralization: Concepts and Policies.” Available at http
1 Purpose and Outline of the Paper
A current German discussion is taken as a motive to apply a wider perspective: Is the existence of largecities linked in some way to the country’s chances for national growth? The German issue: In the substantial fiscal equalization systems between the Länder (states), and between the communities of each individual Land , what might be called a progressive expenditure need scale is applied according to city size. This means that largercities and consequently also the three citystates are assigned a higher need per
in the suburban zones of largecities: The case of the suburban zone of Poznań). In: Marszał T. (ed.), Struktura funkcjonalna małych miast. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Łódź: 51-68.
Kacprzak E., Staszewska S., 2011. Wpływ suburbanizacji na wiejskie struktury osadnicze (Effect of suburbanisation on rural settlement structures). Studia Miejskie 3. Opole: 99-112. Kodeks cywilny z wprowadzeniem (The Civil Code, with an introduction). 2010. Wydawnictwo C.H. Beck.
Krasowicz S., Oleszek W., Horabik J., Dębicki R., Jankowiak J