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flattening process, and then undergoes the fabrication process producing IC chips. The focus of this research project is on the silicon wafer manufacturing.
The silicon wafer manufacturing consists of four key value-adding processes: slicing, lapping, chemical etching and polishing. The primary aim of the slicing process is to define the crystal structure of the wafer, finding the best possible shape. The wafer is subjected to high-pressure cutting, to achieve correct wafer thickness, but on the downside, it causes high surface damage and contamination. The second stage
The lapping angle, which affects the style and quality of production, has been studied as a parameter of weft knitting. But the importance of the lapping angle has not been considered during the warp-knitting cycle. This paper shows that the lapping angle exists in the process of warp knitting and can be divided into horizontal and vertical lapping angles. Models for the lapping angles of closed and open loops were devised, and the lapping angles (horizontal and vertical lapping angles) of closed and open loops were calculated and analyzed. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that influence the lapping angle of tricot warp-knitted fabrics and summarize the rules. Moreover, the vertical lapping angle can affect the loop coverage. Results reveal that the decrease in number of underlaps and an increase in take-off density enables loops of the front guide bar to show on the face of the fabric. Moreover, it is also advantageous for an apparent front loop visibility when the front guide bar knits in open loop.
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