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. Mutasa, D. E. 2004. People Speak: Language Policy and Language Use in South Africa . Pretoria: Simba Guru Publishers. Paola, Riana Roos. 2001. Pro-active language teacher education in multicultural society . Frankfurt am Main: Lang. Roos, Riana. 1990. Language attitudes in the second language situation . In: Per Linguam, 6:2, 25-30 Sapir. E.1958. Culture, Language and Personality (ed. D.G. Mandelbaum) Berkerley, CA: University of California Press. Seargeant, P. and Erling, E.J. 2011. The discourse of ‘English as a language of international development’: Policy

References Amorim, R. (2012). Code switching in student-student interaction; functions and reasons. Revista de Estudos Linguisicos da Univerdada do Porto , 7, 177–195. Arrifin, K., & Rafik-Galea, S. (2012). Code Switching as a Communication Device in Conversation. Language & Society Newsletter , 5. Retrieved from . Ayeomoni Omoniyi, M. (2006). Language Use in a Yoruba-Speech Community. Nebula , 161–172. Beacco, J.C., Byram, M., Cavalli, M., Coste, D., Cuenat, M. E., Goullier, F., & Panthier, J. (2015


In the present-day discourse of bilingualism in Transylvania, the investigation of methods and possibilities for language teaching has an important role. In Romania, it is compulsory for the members of linguistic minorities to learn and to use the language of the state, but at the same time they face a number of problems in the process of learning it. To reconsider the methods of language teaching, there is need for studies which outline the particularities of language use of Romanian of Hungarian speakers. This paper is aimed at presenting a part of this image by analysing how the Hungarian language and the cognitive features entailed influence the translation of noun cases into the Romanian language. The paper presents the 18 noun cases and the prepositions they can be translated with into Romanian.


The idea that in foreign language classes the use of L1 can be beneficial for students is gaining ground in foreign language teaching methodology. Translanguaging is a relatively newly coined term that is often used to refer both to the process of switching between two languages and the methodology that lies behind it. After presenting the main characteristics of translanguaging and the possibility of implementing it as a pedagogical method in English language classrooms, the paper presents a translanguaging activity and also shows how the students evaluated their participation in this practice. The paper concludes that in order to employ translanguaging practices in the classroom, it is necessary to adopt a new mindset to teaching that allows for multiple language use in class and also encourages language learners to embrace their entire linguistic potential.


Discussion on sexism regarding language focuses on how women are discriminated against in our daily language and in academic writing. Although we are against any kind of discrimination, when it comes to dealing with this phenomenon in language and language use, we should be more careful. Language is not only a symbolic means whereby humans interact, it is also a product of human intellectual activity imbued with various experiences of our past and recent ancestors. Thus, it is also a reflection of our society’s conceptual system through which we interpret physical and mental phenomena. In this paper, we have analyzed views regarding sexism and language; tried to display how improving the so-called injustices in language would result in some dire situations which may have never been foreseen. We finally put forth our own solutions to overcome the problems of sexism in academic writing.

. 2014. Bilingual life after school?: Language use, ideologies and attitudes among Gaelic-medium educated adults. University of Edinburgh: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis Dunmore, Stuart. 2017. “Immersion education outcomes and the Gaelic community: identities and language ideologies among Gaelic medium-educated adults in Scotland”, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 38:8: 726-741, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2016.1249875. Education Scotland, 2007. Curriculum for Excellence, Literacy and Gàidhlig, Principles and Practice , Scotland. Fishman, Joshua A. 2006

always wanted to know about blended learning (but were afraid to ask). English Teaching Professional 75 : 58. Jarvis, H. and M. Achilleos (2013) From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language use. TESL-EJ 16 (4) : 1–18. Jarvis, H. and S.D. Krashen (2014) “Is CALL obsolete?” Language acquisition and language learning revisited in a digital age. TESL–EJ 17 (4) : 1–6. Jeong, K.-O. (2017) Preparing ELT student teachers with new technologies in the Korean context. CALL, 30 : 488–509. Jones, C

Language Used of Tourism Advertisings and Information Sonezza Ladyanna1, Rona Almos2 1,2Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia, Abstract Public service advertisements and information boards are essential guidelines for travelers to enjoy travel if the trip is made without a tour guide. Tourists consist of local and foreign tourists who are speakers of different languages, so the use of language in public service advertisements and boards must be considered. For this

References Androutsopoulos, J. (2014). Languaging when contexts collapse: Audience design in social networking. Discourse, Context and Media, 4(5) , 62–73. doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2014.08.006. Belmar, G. (2018). New Speakers of a Minoritized Language: Motivation, Attitudes and Language Use of ‘NijeSprekkers’ of West Frisian. Master’s Thesis, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, the Netherlands. Belmar, G., Boven, C. van, & Pinho, S. (2019). Why do adults decide to learn a minority language? A study of the motivation(s) of potential new speakers of West Frisian


The notion of language in e-Learning is still not very clear from a technical as well as semantic point of view. In the era of Information Technology, it is more and more important to unify the principles of language used and its semantic meaning to be more simple and precise when taking into consideration online educational courses. During the last years, e-Learning courses have begun to be popular around the world as during an internet era, we tend to find consolidated information sources on internet rather than in traditional courses which require our physical presence. The crucial issue which makes an e- Learning course function is the language used to transmit all the information to the students in a clear and effective manner. For such language to be considered effective, it is necessary to adjust it to the general standards adopted in an international environment. The notion of a language used in e-Learning also faces some problems as it should be so concise as to be accessible for everybody regardless of gender, nationality, and intellectual level. It is hard to standardise its principles, thus over the years many scientists have tried to unify the top requirements a perfect e-Learning course should have. Nowadays, most of the population should stop considering e-Learning as an alternative form of education and focus on developing new models and structures for education and learning that fully exploit the opportunities of today’s digital revolution. With a laptop, a mobile device and Wi-Fi, you can manage your own e-Learning course, and take courses yourself, at any time and place, in any language. A typical model of an e-Learning course is based on guided self-study with a linear progression through modules consisting of recorded lectures, course literature, written assignments and multiple-choice self-tests. Technology has got an even better solution which consists of standardising the learning process and adopting it to a commonly known level of difficulty which might be expected when considering its use by an average person.