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research. Applied Linguistics, 30 , 355–88. Brown, J. D. (1991). Statistics as a foreign language; Part 1: What to look for in reading statistical language studies. TESOL Quarterly, 25 , 569–86. Crookes, G. (1997). SLA and language pedagogy: A socioeducational perspective. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19 (1), 93–116. Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47 (1), 108-121. Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellis, R. (2001). Second language


Taking discourse approach towards language teaching has been drawing researchers’ and practitioners’ attention since the introduction of discourse analysis as a discipline in social sciences. Based on the premise that education for sustainable development (ESD) in language pedagogy cannot be realized fully unless language teachers are equipped with theoretical issues in discourse analysis, the purpose of this paper is to review the current research on discourse analysis and language teaching. The focus on the intersection of discourse analysis and language education indicates that three approaches, namely Critical discourse analysis, Descriptive discourse analysis, and Pedagogical discourse analysis have been taken by practitioners in educational context. As for directions of future research on discourse analysis and language teaching, it was postulated that the prospective researchers in the field are expected to focus on operationalizing the discourse concepts at the methodological level. This would be possible if EFL/ESL teachers themselves truly get educated in a discourse-based program in teacher education centers.

:// PETTY, G. (2002). 25 Ways for Teaching Without Talking. Available at: PETŘKOVÁ, A. & ČORNANIČOVÁ, R. (2004). Gerontagogika. Úvod do teorie a praxe edukace seniorů. Olomouc: UP. POKRIVČÁKOVÁ, S. (2013). Applied Linguistics Research of Bilingualism and its Incentives for Foreign Language Pedagogy. Journal of Language and Cultural Education, 1(1), 51-62. POKRIVČÁKOVÁ, S. (2014). Code-switching ako lingvodidaktický fenomén. X-Linguae, 7(2), 61-74. PORUBSKÁ, G. & ĎURDIAK, Ľ. (2005). Manažment vzdelávania dospelých. Nitra

Borrowings . Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo WSP w Bydgoszczy. Majer, J. 2003. Interactive Discourse in the Foreign Language Classroom . Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. Majer, J. 2006. Code-switching in classroom talk: A continuing controversy of language pedagogy. In J. Zybert (ed) Issues in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching . Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. 124-146. Majer, J. 2009 (forthcoming). Code-switching patterns in bilingual communities of practice: A pedagogical perspective . Włocławek: Wydawnictwo PWSZ we Włocławku. McCormick, K. 2003

References Bárdos Jenő. 2004. Nyelvpedagógiai tanulmányok . Pécs: Iskolakultúra. Bax, Stephen. 2003. The end of CLT: A context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal 57(3): 278–287. Bell, David. M. 2003. Method and postmethod: Are they really so incompatible? TESOL Quarterly 37(2): 325–336. Boyadzhieva, Ellie. 2014. Theory and practice in foreign language teaching — Past and Present. Journal of Modern Education Review 4(10): 776–788. Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy . White Plains, NY


The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.


In the early 20th century literature was woven into language curriculum to endorse learners to acquire language structures and perform drills successfully. The actual use of the target language upstaged grammar instruction as the primary focus of language learning in the fields of language pedagogy. In the late 1960s and 1970s literature fell into disuse on the grounds that it was not in conformity with standard grammar rules and the widespread perception was that literature was complex and inaccessible for learners. In the late 1970s and 1980s a decisive swing against literature was experienced and literature came into prominence to enable learners to make huge leaps in language learning. Learners can reap many benefits from the inclusion of literature in foreign language teaching. In attempting to support their arguments of incorporating literature into language teaching a considerable number of researchers offer a number of reasons why literature is an ideal medium for extending language use. By means of inclusion of literature in language teaching, learners are at an advantage to acquire profound knowledge of language. The present paper investigates the language-literature division and focuses on the three phases with regard to the inclusion of literature in language teaching. The supportive role of literature in the development of language awareness is another issue the paper deals with.


The article analyses whether the expansion of English is adding to linguistic repertoires, or whether a process of linguistic capital dispossession of national languages is taking place. It explores the role that discourses of ‘global English’ and of English as a ‘lingua franca’ play in processes of global and regional European integration. It considers whether the linguistic capital of all languages can be made productive when in much of Europe there is a marked downgrading of the learning of foreign languages other than English, alongside the continued neglect of many minority languages. Language pedagogy and language policy need to be situated within wider political, social and economic contexts. EU schemes for research collaboration and student mobility are of limited help in maintaining linguistic diversity. The Bologna process furthers European integration but intensifies the hegemony of English. Nordic universities are moving into bilingual education, combining English with a national language. The 2006 Declaration on a Nordic Language Policy aims at ensuring that Nordic languages and English develop in parallel, that all residents can maintain their languages, and that language policy issues should be widely understood. If neoliberalism and linguistic neoimperialism are determining factors, there are challenges in maintaining the vitality of languages, and organizing school and university education so as to educate critical multilingual citizens.

References Brown, D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Canale, M. & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics , 1 (1), 1-47. Ellis, R. (1986). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ellis, N.C. (1994). Implicit and explicit language learning - An overview. In N.C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 1-32). San Diego, CA: Academic Press

/source/guide_dimintercult_en.pdf . Deardorff, D.K. (2004). The Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of International Education at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States. (Unpublished dissertation). Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University. Available at: Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring Language Pedagogy through Second Language Acquisition Research . London and New York: Routledge Francis and Taylor Group. Fox, A. (2015). Integrating ICT in the Language Classroom: An