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Deaf Studies and Deaf Education , 19 (4), 560. Davidson, K., Lillo-Martin, D., & Chen Pichler, D. (2014). Spoken English language development among native signing children with cochlear implants. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education , 19 (2), 238–250. da Fonseca Flores, A. & Rumjanek, V. (2015). Teaching science to elementary school deaf children in Brazil. Creative Education , 6 , 2127–2135. Day, P. S. (1986). Deaf children’s expression of communicative intentions. Journal of Communication Disorders , 19 (5), 367–385. Dziemidowicz, Cz. (1996). Dziecko

Using MLU to study early language development in English

The study examines the parameter of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU), measured both in morphemes (MLUm) and words (MLUw), in early language development in the case of two English children matched for age. The MLU scores of a normally developing child were compared to the MLU results of a language-impaired child in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the reliability of the MLU index measured in words was also tested in both children. The MLU analysis was based on the CHILDES database and CLAN programme, where the transcripts of spontaneous speech samples are used to calculate basic language parameters at different age-points. The findings of this study indicate that despite the expected delay, the language-impaired child followed a similar route of language development as the control child. However, significant differences between MLUw and MLUm confirmed that the parameters performed two different linguistic analyses.

). Observing spontaneous metaphor in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 31 (3), 430-445. Colston, H. L., & Katz, A. N. (Eds.). (2004). Figurative language comprehension: Social and cultural influences . London: Routledge. Colston, H. L., & Kuiper, M. S. (2002). Figurative language development research and popular Children’s Literature: Why We Should Know,” Where the Wild Things Are“. Metaphor and Symbol, 17 (1), 27-43. Cometa, M. S., & Eson, M. E. (1978). Logical operations and metaphor interpretation: A Piagetian model. Child Development, 49 (3), 649

– 56. FURDÍK, Juraj: Zmeny v jazykových podsystémoch (čiastkových normách). Slovotvorné zmeny. In: Najnowsze dzieje jezyków slowiańskich. Slovenský jazyk. Red. J. Bosák. Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski – Institut Filologii Polskiej 1998, s. 52 – 68. FURDÍK, Juraj: Teória motivácie v lexikálnej zásobe. Ed. M. Ološtiak. Košice: Vydavateľstvo LG 2008. 95 s. GOGOVÁ, Eva: Slovotvorná kategorizácia ako stratégia pri rozvíjaní porozumenia učebného textu. In: O dieťati, jazyku, literatúre, 2017, roč. 5, č. 2, s. 21 – 40. HOFF, Erika: Language Development. 2nd Edition. Wadsworth


The paper presents research findings from research on Roma children and their acquisition of different grammatical categories in the Romani language. Results from three different studies with Roma children from Bulgaria are discussed: acquisition of mental state verbs (MSV), Bates-MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) in Romani and subtests from DELV (Seymour, Roeper, & de Villiers, 2005). All the testing and research shows that Roma children follow the paths of normally developing children in their language development. Roma children are able to correctly use nouns, verbs, wh-questions and to assume different communicative roles.

. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Engelmann, S. & Carnine, D. (1982). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. New York: Irvington. Fontana, D. (1995). Psychology for teachers. London: Macmillan. Gander, M. & Gardiner, H. (1981). Child and adolescent development. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company. Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Gleitman, L. (1989). The structural sources of verb meaning. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development , 28, 1-48. Gottesman, M. (1973


In 1951, in the period after Stalin’s intervention against Marrism, young Slovak archaeologist and historian Ján Dekan published a study Za stalinské riešenie otázok etnogenezy [For the Stalinist Solution of the Questions of Ethno-genesis]. The present paper shows that hidden behind the Marxist terminology, a worth reading and worth considering work on the topic of the rise and development of languages can be found. With the help of the concept of four paradigms of historical (historical-comparative) linguistics, Dekan’s study is evaluated as a text fitting into the revisionist paradigm, characteristic by the assumption of a balanced role of divergence and convergence in language development. Further relationships of the Dekan’s work to other theories and principles of language development are discussed

, Berkshire: National Foundation for Educational Research. Donaghue, Helen (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers' beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4): 344–351. Duff, Patricia A., Charlene G. Polio (1990). How much foreign language is there in the foreign language classroom? The Modern Language Journal 74(2): 154-166. Dujmović, Mauro (2007). The use of Croatian in the EFL classroom. Metodički obzori 2(1): 91-101. Ellis, Rod (1985). Teacher-pupil Interaction in Second Language Development. Gass, Susan M., Carolyn Madden G., eds. Input in second language

in ExELL

References Adams, K. & Conklin, N.F. (1973). Toward a theory of natural classification. In Corum, C., Smith-Strak, T.C., & Weiser, A. (Eds.), Papers from the 9th regional meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society. April 13-15 (pp. 1-10). Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society. Barner, D., Chow, K., & Yang, S. (2009). Finding one’s meaning: A test of the relation between quantifi ers and integers in language development. Cognitive Psychology, 58 (2), 195-219. Barner, D., Libenson, A., Cheung, P., & Takasaki, M. (2009). Cross-linguistic relations between

actions: The beginnings of purposeful intersubjectivity. IEEE Transactions in Autonomous Mental Development , 5 (3), 210–221. Rączaszek-Leonardi, J., Nomikou, I., Rohlfing, K. J., & Deacon, T. W. (2018). Language development from an ecological perspective: Ecologically valid ways to abstract symbols. Ecological Psychology , 30 (1), 39–73. Radkowska, A., Nomikou, I., Leonardi, G., Rohlfing, K. J., & Rączaszek-Leonardi, J. (2017). Scaffolding vocal development: maternal responsiveness to infant speech-like vocalizations at three, six and eight months . Poster