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References Haugen Einar. 1950. "The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing." Language 26, 210-231. Heath Jeffrey. 1984. "Language Contact and Language Change." Annual Review of Anthropology 13, 367-384. Myers-Scotton Carol. 2002. Language Contact: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Thomason Sarah Grey, Kaufman Terrence. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press. Thomason Sarah Grey. 2001. Language Contact. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press

Abstract

The paper focuses on linguistic terminology used by Ælfric (10th c.) in his translation of an anonymous Latin grammar (Excerptiones de arte grammatica anglicе) going back to Priscian and Donatus’ works. Ælfric’s grammatical metalanguage, comprising loan words, semantic loans, loan translations, and periphrastic expressions created for explanatory purposes, is characterized by great diversity. A question arises whether these terms, remaining occasional, made any impact on the language system and can be thus evaluated as change from above.

The paper combines a traditional semantic, morphological, and functional description of Ælfric’s terminology and its consideration within the frame of sociolinguistics; the analysis is supplemented by a cross-linguistic study of Ælfric’s terms with remarks on other Germanic languages. The results achieved enable us to argue that Ælfric’s linguistic terminology, being innovative, displays some features of change from above, arising from language contact and individual change.

Abstract

Languages have been in contact since their existence. The Hungarian and Romanian languages have been so for at least 800 years. The present article aims at analysing the structural changes in the monosyllabic Hungarian loanwords in Romanian. After the theoretical introduction, I discuss the phonological status of the /j/ sound, which is very important in this kind of investigations. After that, I present the syllable structure types of these monosyllabic Hungarian etymons and I present, as well, the changing schemes of their structures in the borrowing. The study concludes that the most affected parts of the syllables are the nucleus and the coda.

References Alexics. György. 1888. Magyar elemek az oláh nyelvben [Hungarian elements in the language of the Vlachs]. Budapest: Homyánszky Viktor Konyvnyomdája. Bakos. Ferenc. 1982. A magyar szókeszlet román elemeinek története [The history of Romanian elements of the Hungarian lexicon]. Budapest: Akademiai Konyvkiado. Benő, Attila. 2008 Kontaktóldgia. A nyelvi kapcsolatok alapfogahnai [Language contact. Fundamental concepts of language contact]. Cluj-Napoca: Egyetemi Műhely Kiadó, Bolyai Társaság. Blédy. Géza. 1942. Influenţa limbii române asupra limbii maghiare

REFERENCES Appel, René & Pieter Muysken. 2005 (1987). Language contact and bilingualism (Amsterdam Academic Archive). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Bullock, Barbara E. & Almeida J. Toribio. 2009. Themes in the study of code-switching. In Barbara E. Bullock &Almeida J. Toribio (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (Cambridge Handbooks in Linguistics), 1–18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.002 Blanár, Vincent. 2009. Proper names in the light of theoretical onomastics. Namenkundliche

REFERENCES Allen, Cynthia. 1997. Middle English case loss and the ‘creolization’ hypothesis. English Language and Linguistics 1(1). 63–89. DOI: 10.1017/S1360674300000368 Bech, Kristin & George Walkden. 2016. English is (still) a West Germanic language. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 39(1). 65–100. DOI: 10.1017/S0332586515000219 Bradley, Henry. 1904. The making of English . London: Macmillan. Braunmüller, Kurt. 1996. Forms of language contact in the area of the Hanseatic League: Dialect contact phenomena and semicommunication. Nordic Journal of Linguistics

. 112-130. BORGES, Robert (2013): Linguistic Archaeology, Kinship Terms, and Language Contact in Suriname. In Anthropological Linguistics 55 (1), pp. 1-35. BOSTOEN, Koen (2007): Bantu Plant Names as Indicators of Linguistic Stratigraphy in the Western Province of Zambia. In Doris L. Payne, Jaime Peña (eds.): Selected Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on African Linguistics . Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, pp. 16-29. BRUCKHAUS, Stefan (2015): Locational Nouns in Datooga (Southern Nilotic, Tanzania). In Angelika Mietzner, Anne Storch (eds

linguistique historique. Paris: Champion. Migge, Bettina. 2003. Creole Formation as Language Contact: The Case of the Suriname Creoles . Amsterdam: Benjamins. Odlin, Terence. 1992. “Transferability and linguistic substrates”, Second Language Research. Special issue on Crosslinguistic Influence, 8(3): 171-202. Pedersen, Holger and Henry Lewis. 1989. A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Pokorny, Julius.1966. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch . Bern: Francke. Pokorny, Julius, Aleksander Lubotsky, and George Starostin. 2007

experience, 233-272. Baltimore: York Press, Gathercole, Virginia and Enlli Thomas. 2009. Bilingual first-language development: dominant language takeover, threatened minority language take-up. Bilingualism: language and cognition 12(2). 213-237. Gómez Rendón, Jorge A. 2008. Typological and social constraints on language contact: Amerindian languages in contact with Spanish. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Ph.D thesis. Green, Antony D. 1997. The prosodic structure of Irish, Scots Gaelic, and Manx. Cornell University, Ph.D thesis. Grosjean, Francois. 2010. Bilingual

. Labov, William. 2001. Principles of linguistic change. Vol. 2: Social factors . Oxford & Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Labov, William. 2007. Transmission and diffusion. Language 83.2, 344–387. DOI: 10.1353/lan.2007.0082 Labov, William., Sharon Ash & Charles Boberg. 2006. The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, phonology and sound change . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/9783110167467 Lavidas, Nikolaos & Alexander Bergs. 2020. On historical language contact in English and its types: State of the art and new directions. Linguistics Vanguard 6s2