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The paper focuses on linguistic terminology used by Ælfric (10th c.) in his translation of an anonymous Latin grammar (Excerptiones de arte grammatica anglicе) going back to Priscian and Donatus’ works. Ælfric’s grammatical metalanguage, comprising loan words, semantic loans, loan translations, and periphrastic expressions created for explanatory purposes, is characterized by great diversity. A question arises whether these terms, remaining occasional, made any impact on the language system and can be thus evaluated as change from above.
The paper combines a traditional semantic, morphological, and functional description of Ælfric’s terminology and its consideration within the frame of sociolinguistics; the analysis is supplemented by a cross-linguistic study of Ælfric’s terms with remarks on other Germanic languages. The results achieved enable us to argue that Ælfric’s linguistic terminology, being innovative, displays some features of change from above, arising from language contact and individual change.
Languages have been in contact since their existence. The Hungarian and Romanian languages have been so for at least 800 years. The present article aims at analysing the structural changes in the monosyllabic Hungarian loanwords in Romanian. After the theoretical introduction, I discuss the phonological status of the /j/ sound, which is very important in this kind of investigations. After that, I present the syllable structure types of these monosyllabic Hungarian etymons and I present, as well, the changing schemes of their structures in the borrowing. The study concludes that the most affected parts of the syllables are the nucleus and the coda.
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