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. Bryman, Alan. 2016. Social research methods, 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Campbell, Donald T. 1963. Social attitudes and other acquired behavioral dispositions. In Sigmund Koch (ed.), Psychology: A study of a science, Investigations of man as socius: Their place in psychology and the social sciences, 94-172. London: McGraw-Hill. Cargile, Aaron C., Howard Giles, Ellen B. Ryan & James J. Bradac. 1994. Language attitudes as a social process: A conceptual model and new directions. Language & Communication 14(3). 211-236. Chan, Jim Y. H. 2016. A multi


Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (, ) show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

References Arikan, A. (2015). Çokkültülülük ve çokdillilik: Tanımlar, tartışmalar ve eğitimsel uygulamalar . Ankara: Eğiten. Donef, R. (2000). Assyrians in turkey: disappearance of a culture? Assyrians after Assyria Conference, July 2, 2000. Retrieved from . Edwards, J. (2004). Language minorities. In A. Davies, & C. Elder, (Eds.). The Handbook of Applied Linguistics . Malden: Blackwell. Edwards, J. (2006). Language attitudes. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics , (2nd Ed), New York

. Mutasa, D. E. 2004. People Speak: Language Policy and Language Use in South Africa . Pretoria: Simba Guru Publishers. Paola, Riana Roos. 2001. Pro-active language teacher education in multicultural society . Frankfurt am Main: Lang. Roos, Riana. 1990. Language attitudes in the second language situation . In: Per Linguam, 6:2, 25-30 Sapir. E.1958. Culture, Language and Personality (ed. D.G. Mandelbaum) Berkerley, CA: University of California Press. Seargeant, P. and Erling, E.J. 2011. The discourse of ‘English as a language of international development’: Policy

the Language Learner Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The L2 Motivational Self System. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, Language Identity and the L2 Self (pp. 9-42). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivation, Language Attitudes and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social Psychology and Second-Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Arnold


Studies of primary school pupils’ Gaelic to date have largely relied on criterion referenced tests to measure attainment against curricular expectations: with only NicLeòid’s (2015) work on student attitudes and Nance’s research (e.g. 2013 and 2015) on comparative phonology bucking this trend. There is a surprising lack of information or research about the language forms and bilingual repertoire of young speakers. A better understanding of young people’s language practices requires the Gaelic research community to develop datasets from spontaneous interactions. This paper draws on a pilot study with a primary 5-6 school cohort in Gaelic-medium education. Using a combination of audio and audio-visual data from the classroom together with data on young speakers’ language attitudes, this paper examines pupils’ determination and strategies to maintain the classroom language as Gaelic. The results of this pilot study can inform the development of new methodologies for collaborative research with the school community on children’s linguistic development and attainment. Such research, it is argued, is necessary in light of the dependency of the Gaelic language planning model on the primary school for the production of new Gaelic speakers.

effects of intercultural contact and tourism on language attitudes and language learning motivation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology , 24 (4), 327-357. Figueiredo, S. & Silva, C. (2008). The psychosocial predisposition effects in second language learning: Motivational profile in Portuguese and Catalan samples. Porta Linguarum , 10, 7-20. Gardner, R. C. (1985a). Social psychology and second-language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Arnold. Gardner, R. C. (1985b). The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery. Technical Report. Language

bilingual development: the role of parental beliefs and attitudes. In E. Guus & L. Verhoeven, (Eds.), Bilingualism and Migration (pp. 75-95). New York: Mouton de Gruyer. Garcia, P. (2005). Case study: Parental language attitudes and practices to socialize children in a diglossic society. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism , 8(4), 328-344. Gardner, R. & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning . Rowley, MA.: Newbury House. Gleason, J. (2005). The development of language . 6 th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson

language acquisition (pp. 399-432). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivation, language attitudes and globalization: A Hungarian perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social psychology and second-language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Arnold. Gardner, R.C. (2001). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. In Z. Dornyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 1-20). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press


Adults learning a minoritized language are potential new speakers, that is “adults who acquire a socially and communicatively consequential level of competence and practice in a minority language” (Jaffe, 2015; see also O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015). New speakers’ research has become quite common recently, marking a shift from traditional notions of speakerness in minority contexts, built around the Fishmanian discourse of reversing language shift (see Kubota, 2009). The new speaker—actually neo-speaker—is one of the seven categories put forward by Grinevald and Bert (2011), who considered them central to language revitalization. Answering the call for more data on new speakers of minoritized languages in O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015, this research aims to start the debate on the new speakers of Frisian (see Belmar, 2018; Belmar, Eikens, Jong, Miedema, & Pinho, 2018; and Belmar, Boven, & Pinho, 2019) by means of a questionnaire filled in by adults learning the language in the evening courses offered by Afûk. This article presents an analysis of their backgrounds, their attitudes towards the language, and their language use.