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” (Eng.: “The concept of landing fields for medical air rescue helicopters”), Logistyka-Nauka, No. 4, pp. 6793-6804, (published in electronic format on CD 2), Poznań. [7] Wąchalski K., 2016, “Ocena uwarunkowań konstrukcyjnych wyniesionych lądowisk dla helikopterów na budynkach szpitalnych realizowanych obecnie w Polsce”, (Eng.: “Assessment of the current construction conditions for elevated helipad on hospital buildings in Poland”), Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No. 3(244), pp. 189-201, Warsaw. [8] Civil Aviation Authority, 2016, Standards for helicopter

Introduction During landing tasks, forces and moments are generated by the musculoskeletal system at surface contact to progressively decelerate the velocity of the body ( Dufek and Bates, 1990 ; McNitt-Gray, 1993 ). When landing after a forward jump, the body’s downward velocity must be decelerated by an upward acceleration, while its forward velocity needs to be decelerated by a backward acceleration. Inappropriate landing patterns can cause excessive loading to the body, resulting in musculoskeletal injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament is commonly injured

References [1] Kowalski, W., et al., State of the art in landing gear shock absorbers, Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No 181, 2005. [2] Petrone, G, Bruno, M. et al., An Innovative Health Monitoring System for Aircraft Landing Gears , 8th European Workshop On Structural Health Monitoring (EWSHM 2016), Spain, Bilbao 2016. [3] Philips, P. A., Health Monitoring of Electrical Actuators for Landing Gears, The School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Phd Thesis, Manchester 2012. [4] Skorupka, Z., Laboratory Investigations on Landing Gear

References [1] Currey, N. S., Aircraft Landing Gear Design Principles and Practices , Washington AIAA 1988. [2] Kowalski, W., et al., State of the art in landing gear shock absorbers, Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No. 181, 2005. [3] Kowalski, W, Skorupka, Z., et al., Landing Gear Active Shock Absorption , AVT STO-170, 2011. [4] 0169/16/ZTET/2017/SPR – Conceptual design of the PZL helicopter W-3A adaptive landing gear system , Report, ILot, Warsaw 2017. [5] Certification Specifications for Large Rotorcraft , CS-29, European Aviation Safety

References [1] Currey, N. S., Aircraft Landing Gear Design Principles and Practices , Washington AIAA, 1988. [2] Kowalski, W., et al., State of the art in landing gear shock absorbers , Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, N o 181, 2005. [3] Skorupka, Z., et al., Electrically Driven and Controlled Landing Gear for UAV up to 100 kg of Take Off Mass , European Council for Modelling and Simulation proceedings, Kuala Lumpur 2010. [4] Skorupka, Z., Paprzycki, I., Laboratoryjne badania podwozi lotniczych , Transport przemysłowy i maszyny robocze, Wrocław

/31/2003) Lazicki, P. (2004). Budowa modelu komputerowego i analiza dynamiczna podwozia głównego samolotu Su-22. Warsaw: Warsaw University of Technology. Fraczek, J., Lazicki, P. & Leski, A. (2005). Dynamical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Military Aircraft Main Landing Gear Using Multibody Methods. Multibody Dynamics , ECCOMAS. Ministry of Defence. (1 December 1999). Defence Standard: Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft. Def Stan 00-970, Issue 2. Klimaszewski, S. I. Inni. (2007). Badania wytrzymałościowo-zmęczeniowe stali 30HGSNA. Warszawa

Win the Space Race . New York: HarperCollins, 2016. Tribbe, Matthew D. No Requiem for the Space Age: The Apollo Moon Landings and American Culture . New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. White, Hayden. “The Historical Event”, Differences 2 (2008): 16. White, Hayden. Metahistory. The Historical Imagination in the 19th-century Europe . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. White, Hayden. “The Modernist Event.” In The Persistence of History: Cinema, Television, and the Modern Event , edited by Vivian Sobchak. New York-London: Rout-ledge 1996, 17

Introduction During two-footed landings from vertical jumps, the peak magnitude of vertical reaction forces has been found to range from 3.5 to 6 times BW ( Gross and Nelson, 1988 ). Previous investigations reported a close relationship between the great shock in strenuous landings and lower-limb injuries, that is, repetitive excessive loading can induce acute injuries ( Beynnon et al., 2005 ; McNitt-Gray, 1993 ) and overuse damages ( Agel et al., 2007 ; Borowski et al., 2008 ). Thus, to prevent sports injuries in athletic activities, footwear manufacturers

: A preliminary study. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 29, 282-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.10.007. 12. Grabowski A.M., Kram R. (2008). Effects of velocity and weight support on ground reaction forces and metabolic power during running. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 24, 288-97. DOI: 10.1123/jab.24.3.288. 13. Mills C., Pain M.T., Yeadon M.R. (2009). Reducing ground reaction forces in gymnastics landings may increase internal loading. Journal of Biomechanics 42, 671-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.01.019. 14. Farley C.T., Blickhan R., Saito J

Introduction During bipedal landings, the peak magnitude of the impact force ranges from three to seven times the body weight (BW) ( Yeow et al., 2011a ). Numerous studies have reported a close relationship between high impact forces and lower extremity injuries during intensive landings, indicating that the excessive repetitive loading can induce acute injuries such as sprains, muscle-tendon strains or even fractures ( Beynnon et al., 2005 ; Del Coso et al., 2018 ) and overuse damage such as stress fractures and patellofemoral pain syndrome ( Borowski et al