The prosecutor’s protest is a legal mean by which the prosecutor supervises the observance of law by public authorities. District offices, cadastral departments decide on the deposit of property rights to real estate, as well as on ownership rights to agricultural land, and also decide on the protest of the prosecutor. If the relevant District office, cadastral department, or its superior authority does not remove the non–compliance by issuing a decision or a measure that complies with the law, the prosecutor may bring the case to court. The court may annul the contested decision or measure. The aim of the paper is to collect and analyse data and evaluate the institute of prosecutor’s protest as an effective tool of agricultural land protection in connection with its acquisition or transfer. The paper compares the individual years in the observed period of time and also compares different regions in Slovakia. The result is a comparison and evaluation of the observed time periods.
The protection of the qualitative aspects of agricultural land is in the interests of both Slovakia and the European Union. Several policy documents have emerged in the European Union over the last few years, however, they have not been legally binding, as the EU Member States refuse all binding legal acts in this area. Therefore, solving the problem of agricultural land protection is left to the exclusive competence of the EU Member States. On the other hand, problems related to agricultural land cross the borders of states and that is why the Department of Law, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra submitted an international research project under the Erasmus + program, Key Action 3: Jean Monnet entitled “Central European Initiative on Agricultural Land Protection”. The aim is to strengthen the dialogue between key stakeholders in the protection of agricultural land in Central Europe what will have a positive impact on the achievement of the EU agri-environmental and food policy objectives.
Protection of the functions and surface area of agricultural land should be the interest of every society and is an expression of the maturity of the country. The paper analyses historical development of the legal regulation on the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia since the establishment of Czechoslovakia i.e. from 1918 to the present, i.e. until 2017.
The aim of this paper was to analyze reasons and a range of changes in agricultural land areas due to allocation them for non-agricultural purposes across a period of 1990-2015 in Poland. This phenomena has not been sufficiently considered till now. Lack of this knowledge does not allow effective reduction of the decline of agricultural land by appropriate legislation and administrative action, especially on urban areas. In Poland, a significant proportion of agricultural land is allocated annually for non-agricultural purposes, which is connected with their permanent withdrawal from agricultural production. The permanent decline in the area of agricultural land in the country has been observed since the beginning of the systemic transformation. The dominant direction of the land withdrawal for non-agricultural purposes is their allocation to housing construction. In 1995 the Law on the protection of agricultural and forest land was introduced. This law includes strengthened economic tools for the protection of agricultural land in the form of mandatory charges for the withdrawal of agricultural land showing the best soil quality. This has led to a significant reduction in agricultural land use withdrawal. However, accelerated regional development following the accession of Poland to the EU and, then, the need to expand technical infrastructure resulted in several amendments to the 1995 Act, significantly weakened the protection of agricultural and forest land. It seems that the land as the unrepeatable good should be strictly covered by more respect and protection than ever before, especially in areas with the highest production value.
References BABBIE E., 2008., Fundamentals of Social Research (in Polish), PWN, Warszawa. BRABEC E., SMITH C., 2002, Agricultural land fragmentation: the spatial effects of three landprotection strategies in the eastern United States, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 58 no 2, pp. 255-268. BIEDA A., JASIŃSKA E., PREWEDA E., 2014, Surveying protection of agricultural land in Poland, International Conference on Environmental Engineering, Vilnius, Lithuania. CADASTER and Property Register Act (CPRA), Official Gazette of RBulgaria, 34/2000, with further amendments
The paper analyses the legal regulation of the cultivation of fast-growing trees on agricultural land in Slovakia and Czechia. The focus is on the differences in the legislation of the two countries, the application of the regulations of cultivation of fast-growing trees in practice, the level of protection of agricultural land, and the support system for the cultivation of fast-growing trees. Comparison of national legislation dealing with the issue of planting fast-growing trees, taking into consideration the protection of agricultural land and the legislation on granting the state support has also been investigated in the context of European legislation. The procedure before the start of planting, the permission conditions for planting of fast-growing trees, the conditions and the process of support provision have been studied. The result of the documents analysis is a comprehensive comparative overview of the above-mentioned areas of legislation on the cultivation of fast-growing trees in Slovakia and Czechia and the identification of differences, benefits and practical impacts on the cultivation of fast-growing trees.
In the last decades, the area of agricultural land has been declined permanently in Hungary. Despite the diminishing production area, Hungary is among the leaders in terms of the proportion of agricultural land to the total area in the European Union. There are several reasons of using the arable land. As other economic sectors have gained a greater role in the production of GDP and employment, they have taken a larger area from agriculture. Real estate and infrastructure developments were justified by raising the standard of living of the population. The soil, nature, landscape and water protection aspects were also involved. In Hungary, the arable land is the most important natural resource, so it is very important to protect it. In our study, we examine the changes of arable land and uncultivated area in Hungary based on secondary databases of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office and departments of the Ministry of Agriculture. In the course of the research we focused on regional disparities.
Soil erosion by water is an important economical issue strongly deteriorating environment and requiring remedial actions. The study was designed to evaluate antierosion effect of changes in the layout of plots from along to across slope as an effect of land consolidation. Moreover, rightness of leaving newly set out boundaries of plots without any protection (i.e. sodding) was evaluated. For this purpose simulations of use of additional anti-erosive measures were done. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used. Studies have shown that in addition to the design of transverse layout of parcels during consolidation, further antierosion measures may be necessary to reduce soil loss and sediment yield. In order to minimize soil losses outside the slope, boundaries between the newly designed fields should be sodded already in the post consolidation management. Limitation the amount of erosion over the entire slope requires use of additional protection measures in the upper part of slopes e.g. shelterbelts and antierosion crop rotations. WEPP model can be recommended for Provincial Bureaus of Surveying as a tool to support the development of assumptions for consolidation projects of lands threatened by erosion.
Protecting the qualitative aspect of the agricultural land is in the interest of European Union policies and Slovakia as well. The EU adopted in 2006 a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection to ensure protection and sustainable use of land, including agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate legislation protecting agricultural land in the context of the implementation of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in Slovakia. The basic legislation for the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia is the Act No. 220/2004 Coll. on the conservation and use of agricultural land and amending Act No. 245/2003 Coll. concerning integrated pollution prevention and control and amending certain laws, as amended, which provides a basic framework for conservation of the agricultural land. In terms of preserving, agricultural land has significant importance in the Common Agricultural Policy -pillar I and II which stipulate cross-compliance requirements, requirements for agri-environmental measures for applicants for single area payment scheme, for applicants for support under agri-environmental measures respectively.
The paper analyzes the usage of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes in Slovakia, the historical background of usage and protection of agricultural land with emphasis on its withdrawal and administrative procedure. It describes the historical development of usage and protection of agricultural land. The progress of agricultural land protection legislation correlates with the socio-economic determinants of a specific historical period. The paper reflects the administrative procedure of agricultural land withdrawal and significant measures for its protection. It also describes the decision-making process about the conversion of agricultural land, administrative procedures for agricultural land withdrawal, its reasons and also its conversion into another type of the agricultural land and measures protecting agricultural land acreage.