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The Suchedniów water reservoir is located in the central section of the River Kamionka in the northern part of the Holy Cross Mountains of central Poland. This area once belonged to the Old Polish Industrial District that, during the Middle Ages, was very intensively developed by iron metallurgy. Many forges and mills along the rivers used water power, which led to the construction of an anthropogenic, small-scale water retention system. At the beginning of the twentieth century many of these reservoirs were drained after the collapse of metallurgical activities. The present-day reservoir was built in 1974 and drained in 2017. Research into the drained basin has documented various forms and sediments, some of which record present-day depositional processes (fire proof clay layer, inland fan delta), while others represent the historical period (lacustrine sediments of older reservoirs). Traces of catastrophic events have been preserved as well; an assemblage of megaripples marks the sudden drainage caused by a dam break in 1974.

, Merkt J, Balaga K, Müller H, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Stebich M and Negendank JFW, 2001. Correlation and synchronisation of Lateglacial continental sequences in northern central Europe based on annually laminated lacustrine sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 20(11): 1233–1249, DOI 10.1016/S0277-3791(00)00149-9. [39] Lowe JJ, Rasmussen SO, Björck S, Hoek WZ, Steffensen JP, Walker MJC, Yu ZC, and the INTIMATE group, 2008. Synchronization of palaeoenvironmental events in the North Atlantic region during the Last


The morphology of the Mazury Lake District (north-eastern Poland) dates from 24-19 ka (main stadial of the youngest Vistulian glaciation). During this last glacial maximum (MIS 2) a belt with lacustrine basins was formed when the ice sheet retreated at the end of the Pomeranian phase. The ice-sheet retreat is morphologically also expressed by the occurrence of end moraines. The study area is situated in the Skaliska Basin, in the northern part of the Lake District (near the Polish/ Russian border), at the periphery of zone with end moraines. Originally the basin was an ice-dammed depression filled with melt water; the water flowed out into the developing Pregoła valley when the ice retreated and did no longer dam off the depression. The basin, which is surrounded by hill-shaped moraines, is filled now with Late Glacial and Holocene glaciolacustrine sediments. The organic sediments of the basin record the history of the Late Glacial and Holocene climatic changes in this region.


The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China).

The flows and the resulting SSDS were probably triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, shear stress of gravity flows, and/or the sudden release of overburden-induced excess pore-fluid pressure. The tectonically active setting, the depositional slope and the high sedimentation rate facilitated the development of soft-sediment deformations, which consist mainly of load casts and associated structures such as pseudonodules and flame structures. Sediments with such deformations were occasionally eroded by slurries and became embedded in their deposits.

. Pieczonki - profile of lacustrine sediments; Allerod, Younger Dryas and Holocene. In: Kondracki J. & Pietkiewicz S. (eds), VIth INQUA Congress Publications, Guide Book of Excursion D: 54-56. Państw. Wyd. Nauk, Łodź. STASIAK J. 1963. Historia jeziora Kruklin w świetle osadow strefy litoralnej (summary: History of Kruklin Lake as revealed by the deposits of its littoral zone). Pr. Geogr. Inst. Geogr. PAN, 42: 1-94. STASIAK J. 1965. Badania nad starożytnym krajobrazem Pojezierza Suwalskiego w rejonie Szwajcarii. Pr. Białost. Tow. Nauk., 7: 5-41. STASIAK J. 1967. Notes on the

– flattened and washed moraines, partly covered by sub-aerial cryogenic loams (Q 2 ?); 2 – distal complex of well-preserved terminal and side moraines within Chuya depression, (Q 3 2 ?); 3 – proximal complex of well-preserved terminal and side moraines, (Q 3 4 ?); 4 – late Pleistocene – Holocene moraine ramparts of different glacial stages within river valleys, (Q 3 4 ); 5 – LIA moraines, (Q 4 ); 6 – glacial-lacustrine sediments of different ages; 7 – alluvial deposits; 8 – lakes and rivers; 9 – glaciers; 10 – altitudes (m a.s.l.); 11 – Chagan section; 12 – Chagan

Publishing House (Beijing), 263 pp. (in Chinese). Qiao, X.F. & Li, H.B., 2008. Pillow, ball-and-pillow structures: paleo-seismic records within strata. Geological Reviews 54, 721-730 (in Chinese with English abstract). Qiao, X.F. & Li, H.B., 2009. Effect of earthquake and ancient earthquake on sediments. Journal of Palaeogeog-raphy 11, 593-610 (in Chinese with English abstract). Rodríguez-Pascua, M.A., Calvob, J.P., Vicentea, G.D. & Gomez-Gras, D., 2000. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in lacustrine sediments of the Prebetic Zone, SE Spain


The aims of the study were to characterize shoreline soil development and evolution and to determine land use changes (19th to 20th centuries) in the direct catchment of the completely vanished Gardeja lake. The study was based on pedological research and analysis of cartographic materials. The main factor determining the current development of shoreline zone soil cover at the former Gardeja lake was human activity (lake dewatering, further drainage and human-induced erosion). Studied soil profiles were developed from mineral, non-lacustrine materials (upper parts of the slopes) and lacustrine sediments covered with colluvium. The analyzed soil catenas are representative for the undulated young glacial landscape of Northern Poland. The biggest changes of the land use were observed for the class of grasslands that is combined with shrubs (increase of cover area).

The tectonic evolution of Lake Eğirdir, West Turkey

Lake Eğirdir is one of the most important fresh-water lakes of Turkey. It has a tectonics-related origin. The area formed under a roughly N-S compressional tectonic regime during the Middle Miocene. The stresses caused slip faults west and east of Isparta Angle, and the lake formed at the junction of these faults. The area subsided between normal faults, thus creating the topographic condition required for a lake. The lacustrine sediments have fundamentally different lithologies. After the Late Miocene, central Anatolia started to move westwards, but western Anatolia moved in a SW direction along the South-western Anatolian Fault, which we suggest to have a left lateral slip, which caused that the Hoyran Basin moved t7 km towards the SW and rotated 40° counterclockwise relative to Lake Eğirdir.


The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin’s present-day extent.