N.W. Sneddon, N. Lopez-Villalobos, R.E. Hickson, S.R. Davis, U. Geary, D.J. Garrick and L. Shalloo
when the output of the most profitable products is prioritised across a supply profile that balances costs at both farm and processor levels. The optimisation process centres on maximising product returns (including by-products) after accounting for costs and making the most of the available local resources. The purchase of additional milk components, such as lactose, as ingredients beyond raw milk may increase the yields of the manufactured products. The associated increases in ingredient costs are only justified if they are less than the increased value of the
Zhang, S., Gao, S & Gao, G. (2010). Immobilization of β galactosidase onto magnetic beads. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 160, 1386-1393. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-009-8600-5.
Heyman, B. (2006). Lactose Intolerance in infants, children and adolescents. Pediatrics 118, 1279-1286. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-1721.
Ansari, S.A. & Husain, Q. (2010). Lactose hydrolysis by β galactosidase immobilized on concanavalin A-cellulose in batch and continuous mode. J. Molec. Catal. B: Enzym. 6
Alloui M.N., Szczurek W., Świątkiewicz S. (2013). The usefulness of prebiotics and probiotics in modern poultry nutrition: a review. Ann. Anim. Sci., 13: 17–32.
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Deng Y., Misselwitz B., Dai N., Fox M. (2015). Lactose intolerance in adults: biological mechanism and dietary management. Nutrients, 7: 8020–8035.
Dibner J.J., Richards J.D. (2005). Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture
Adriana Ciurba, Emőke Rédai, Ioana Pop, Paula Antonoaea and Nicoleta Todoran
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop lactose-free orodispersible tablets with loratadine for patients with lactose intolerance. Materials and methods: Seven compositions (F1-F7) of 10 mg loratadine were prepared in form of orally disintegrating tablets, by direct compression, using croscarmellose sodium and pre-gelatinized starch in various concentrations as superdisintegrants, diluted with microcrystalline cellulose and combined with mannitol and maltodextrin as binder agents. The tablets had been studied in terms of their pharmacotechnical characteristics, by determining: the weight uniformity of the tablets, their friability, breaking strength and disintegration time, drug content and the dissolution profile of loratadine. The statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism Software Inc. As dependent variables, both the hardness of the tablets and their disintegration ability differ between batches due to their compositional differences (as independent variables). DDSolver were used for modeling the kinetic of the dissolution processes by fitting the dissolution profiles with time-dependent equations (Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Peppas-Sahlin). Results: All proposed formulas shows rapid disintegration, in less than 15 seconds, and the dissolution loratadine spans a period of about 10 minutes. Akaike index as well as R2 adjusted parameter have demonstrated that the studied dissolution profiles are the best fitted by Zero-order kinetic. Conclusion: In conclusion, association of croscarmellose sodium (7.5%) with pre-gelatinized starch (6%) as superdisintegrants and mannitol as the binder agent (35%), positively influences the dissolution properties of loratadine from orally fast dispersible tablets.
Witold Szczurek, Mohamed Nabil Alloui and Damian Józefiak
Adhikari P.A., Kim W.K. (2017). Overview of prebiotics and probiotics: focus on performance, gut health and immunity -areview. Ann. Anim. Sci., 17: 949-966.
Alloui M.N., Szczurek W. (2017). Effects of different dietary levels of whey lactose asaprebiotic disaccharide on the productive performances and selected indices of the caecal micro-environment in broiler chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci., 17: 1107-1122.
Alloui M.N., Szczurek W., Świątkiewicz S. (2013). The usefulness of prebiotics and probiotics in
Robert Klewicki, Iwona Belina, Aleksandra Wojciechowska, Elżbieta Klewicka and Michał Sójka
galactosyl derivatives obtained by the action of two different β-galactosidases. Food Chem., 2009, 114, 1099–1105.
4. Cardelle-Cobas A., Villamiel M., Olano A., Corzo N., Study of galacto-oligosaccharide formation from lactose using Pectinex Ultra SP-L. J. Sci. Food Agr., 2008, 88, 954–961.
5. Del-Val M.I., Hill Jr. C.G., Jiménez-Barbero J., Otero C., Selective enzymatic synthesis of 6’-galactosyl lactose by Pectinex Ultra SP in water. Biotechnol. Lett., 2001, 23, 1921–1924.
6. Del-Val M.I., Otero C., Biphasic aqueous media containing polyethylene glycol
Prebiotics are such indigestible food ingredients that enter the colon and serve as nutrient for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Since fibres and oligosaccharides are the typical prebiotics, we produced prebiotics in our experiments with the reaction of lactose and malic acid as well as citric acid, where these reactions made use of an appropriate concentration of these substances, had an adequate duration, and were carried out under optimal temperature conditions. We determined the optimal parameters of the reaction, measured the loss of the starting materials as well as the increase in concentration of the end-product, and analysed the total sugar content of the hydrolysed prebiotics after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate our end-product’s resistance to carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, which is a fundamental requirement for a prebiotic so that upon reaching the colon it can serve as nutrient for the probiotic bacteria found there.
Shakeel Ahmed Ansari, Rukhsana Satar, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohd Jahir Khan, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Mohammed H. Al-Qahtani and Mohamad Yusof Maskat
1. Ansari, S.A. & Husain, Q. (2012). Lactose hydrolysis from milk/whey in batch and continuous processes by concanavalin A- -Celite 545 immobilized Aspergillus oryzae b galactosidase. Food Bioprod. Proc. 90, 351-359. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2011.07.003.
2. Heyman, B. (2006). Lactose intolerance in infants, children and adolescents. Pediatrics 118, 1279-1286. DOI: 10.1542/ peds.2006-1721.
3. Demirhan, E., Apar, D.K. & Ozbek, B. (2010). A modeling study on hydrolysis of whey lactose and
Aider, M., Halleux, D. (2007). Isomerization of lactose and lactulose production: Review. Trends Food Sci. Technol ., 18 , 356-364.
Ballongue, J. (2003). Bifidobacteria and probiotic action. In: Salminen, S., Wright, A., Ouwehand, A. (eds.). Lactic Acid Bacteria. Microbiological and Functional Aspects (pp. 67-125). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Beitane, I. (2008). The evaluation of lactulose and inulin for the development of a new functional milk product. Doctoral dissertation, Latvia