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supplemented and nonsupplemented periparturient heifers. J Dairy Sci 2008, 91, 977-987. 8. Castillo C., Hernandez J., Bravo A., Lopez-Alonso M., Pereira V., Benedito J.L.: Oxidative status during late pregnancy and early lactation in dairy cows. Vet J 2005, 169, 286-292. 9. Castillo C., Hernandez J., Valverde I., Pereira V., Sotillo J., Lopez-Alonso M., Benedito J.L.: Plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) during lactation in dairy cows. Res Vet Sci 2006, 80, 133-139. 10. Celi P., Di Trana A., Claps S.: Effects of plane of nutrition on oxidative stress

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Introduction. During the lactation period, energy demand and nutritional needs increase in woman. The basis of proper nutrition should consist of a balanced diet and concomitant vitamins and minerals supplementation in doses recommended by major scientific societies. Lactation has a priority over metabolic processes in mother. It absorbs 400-670 kcal per day and increases in case of multiples. Breastfeeding is the best method of feeding infants during their first 6 months of life, therefore it should be promoted among mothers and supported by qualified specialists. According to The World Health Organization (WHO) and The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition [ESPGHAN], the percentage of women continuing breastfeeding at the child’s age of six months is low and in Poland it is 4-9% for exclusive breastfeeding and 63% for partial breastfeeding. In Europe, only in four countries the percentage of women continuing exclusive breastfeeding at infant’s 6 months of age exceeds 30% (Hungary, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia). Aim. The following article is a collection of current recommendations on vitamins and minerals supplementation during lactation. In addition to the recommendations, practical aspects of successful lactation and its impact on the health of infants and mothers have been described.

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first ovulation in high-yielding dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci 2008, 91:3363-3371. 8. Evans JL, Maddux BA, Goldfine ID: The molecular basis for oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance. Antioxid Redox Signal 2005, 7(7-8):1040-52. 9. Brenta G: Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction? Journal of Thyroid Research 2011, doi:10.4061/2011/152850. 10. Butler ST, Marr AL, Pelton SH, Radcliff RP, Lucy MC, Butler RW: Insulin restores GH respoonsiveness during lactation-induced negative energy balance in dairy cattle: effects on expression of IGF

References 1. Abuelo A., Hernandez J., Benedito J.L., Castello C.: A comparative study of the metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity and inflammatory response between organically and conventionally managed dairy cattle during the periparturient period. Animal 2014, 8, 1516–1525. 2. Allen M.S., Bradford B.J., Oba M.: The hepatic oxidation theory of the control of feed intake and its application to ruminant. J Anim Sci 2009, 87, 3317–3334. 3. Bauman D.E., Elliot J.M.: Control of nutrient partitioning in lactating ruminant. In: Biochemistry of lactation , edited by

, lactation and aging. Front Neuroendocrinol 30 : 343–357. Pittenger C, Duman RS. (2008). Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: a convergence of mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology 33 : 88–109. Popoli M, Gennarelli M, Racagni G. (2002). Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress and antidepressants. Bipolar Disord 4 : 166–82. Rayen I, Steinbusch HWM, Charlier TD, Pawluski JL. (2013). Developmental fluoxetine exposure and prenatal stress alter sexual differentiation of the brain and reproductive behavior in male rat offspring. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38 : 1618