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Belirlenmesi: Panel Veri Yaklaşımı, Kafkas Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.6, no.10, 249-280. 9. Çağatay, N.,and Özler, Ş. (1995), Feminization of the labor force: the effects of long term development and structural adjustment, World development, Vol. 23, no.11, pp.1883-1894. 10. Doumato, E. A., and Posusney, M. P. (Eds.), (2003), Women and globalization in the Arab Middle East: gender, economy, and society, Lynne Rienner Publishers. 11. Durand, J. (1975), The Labour Force in Economic Development: A Comparison of International Census Data, 1946

in 2006, News from the Rockwool Foundation Research Unit , March 2008, 1-12. Feld, L. P. and Larsen, C. (2009). Undeclared Work in Germany 2001-2007 - Impact of Deterrence, Tax Policy, and Social Norms: An Analysis Based on Survey Data , Springer, Berlin et al. Feld, L.P. and Schneider, F. (2010), Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Earnings in OECD Countries, German Economic Review , 11/2, 109-149. Flaming, D., Hayolamak, B. and Jossart, P. (2005). Hopeful Workers, Marginal Jobs: LA's Off-The-Books Labor Force, Economic Roundtable, Los Angeles, CA, 2005


Fuzzy time series methods based on the fuzzy set theory proposed by Zadeh (1965) was first introduced by Song and Chissom (1993). Since fuzzy time series methods do not have the assumptions that traditional time series do and have effective forecasting performance, the interest on fuzzy time series approaches is increasing rapidly. Fuzzy time series methods have been used in almost all areas, such as environmental science, economy and finance. The concepts of labour force participation and unemployment have great importance in terms of both the economy and sociology of countries. For this reason there are many studies on their forecasting. In this study, we aim to forecast the labour force participation and unemployment rate in Poland and Turkey using different fuzzy time series methods.


This contribution investigates the link between female labour force participation and household income inequality using data from the Swiss Household Panel (2000-2014). Through index decomposition analyses, we find that female labour force participation has slightly attenuated household income inequality over time. Women’s entry into the labour market, higher work percentages within part-time work - but not the shift from part-time to full-time work - and the weak correlation in partner’s earnings have contributed to this effect.


Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell framework suggests that if a country has unexpectedly increased the permanent labour force, there will be a change in the production structure. Increases in the relative proportion of labour-intensive product demand occur and, hence, decrease the need for investment relative to domestic saving, and encourage the current account surplus.

This paper tries to fill the empirical studies gap on the effects of the labour force, especially its utilization in the data panel of ASEAN + 6 countries using the generalized method of moments (GMM) used to capture the unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity across countries that often arise in a panel data model. The estimation result shows that the labour force has an asymmetric shock and it only affects the country of origin, even when the financial institution deepening as a control variable is included. The analysis also indicates that labour regulations in these countries tend to be rigid because the speed with which the current account adjusts is relatively slow.

References Darby M., Haltiwanger J., Plant M., 1986, Unemployment Rate Dynamics and Persistent Unemployment under Rational Expectations, American Economic Review, 75(4). Economic Activity of the Polish Population 4Q 2016, 2016, GUS, Warszawa. European Union Labour Force Survey Methods and Definitions 2001, 2003, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. Gärtner M., 1997, A Primer in European Macroeconomics, Prentice Hall, London. (28

with Breaks. Review of Development Economics.123, pp. 620-635. CANER, M., HANSEN,B.E. (2001). Threshold Autoregression with a Unit Root. Econometrica. 69, pp. 1555-1596. DICKEY, D., FULLER, W.A. (1979). Distribution of the Estimators for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root. Journal of the American Statistical Association.744, pp. 27-431. DINU, M., SOCOL, C., MARINS, M-C., SOCOL, A-G. (2011). Testing of the Okun's Law in Romania, Economic Computation & Economic Cybernetics Studies & Research. 45, pp. 1-15. DUVAL,R., ERIS, M., FURCERI, D. (2010). Labour Force

Sampling.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 88: 1013–1020. Djerf, K. 1997. “Effects of Post-Stratification on the Estimates of the Finnish Labour Force Survey.” Journal of Official Statistics 13: 29–39. Djerf, K. and P. Väisänen. 1993. “Effects of Post-Stratication on the Estimates of the Finnish Labour Force Survey.” International Statistical Institute 49th Session, Contributed Papers, Book 1. Florence: ISI, 375–376. Eurostat. 2002. “Monograph of Offcial Statistics – Variance Estimation Methods in the European Union.” Luxembourg: Eurostat. Available

collection is still limited; however, it is urgent for the receiving states to promote relevant research that aims at improving the handling of migration flows to enhance social order, stability and citizens’ quality of life (Ortega and Peri, 2012). The present study focuses on countries where the free mobility of workers is already a reality and considers the impact of the EPL on such flows, rather than (given the data availability problems) analysing the effect of migratory policies on labour force flows. In particular, we study the most advanced case of economic

Market in Turkey. The 6 th Conference of the European Sociological Association . Murcia. [12] Hes, T., Neradová, A. & Srnec, K. (2013). Attempt for explanation of declining labor force participation of women in Turkey through test of Under-Participation Trap Hypothesis applied on micro-finance survey data. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 7, 76-85. [13] Household Labor Statistics 2013. Ankara: Turkish Statistical Institute. [14] İlkkaracan, İ. (2012). Why so few women in the labor market in Turkey? Feminist Economies 18(1),1-37. DOI: 10