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REFERENCES [1] Chisnall R., The forensic analysis of knots and ligatures, Lightning Powder Company, Inc., Salem, Oregon, 2000 [2] Chisnall R., What knots can reveal: the strengths and limitations of forensic knot analysis, J. Forensic Ident., 2007, 57, 726-749 [3] Chisnall R., Knot-tying habits, tier handedness and experience, J. Forensic Sci., 2010, 1232-1244 [4] Chisnall R., Tying anomalies and their significance in analysing knot evidence, Can. Soc. of Forensic Sc. J., 2009, 42, 172-194 [5] Chisnall R., Basic principles of forensic knot analysis: a qualitative

References Alerstam T. 1990. Bird migration . Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. Cramp S., Simmons K.E.L. (Eds). 1986. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa . vol. 3 . Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. Engelmoer M., Roselaar C.C. 1998. Geographical Variation in Waders . Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Frikke J., Laursen K. 1992. Occurrence of the Knot Calidris canutus in Denmark, with special reference to the Danish Wadden Sea . Wader Study Group Bull.   64 (Suppl.): 155-160. Glutz von

.83.4.361 [16] Maistrello, L., Vaccari, G., Sasanelli, N. (2010): Effect of chestnut tannins on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Helminthologia, 47: 48–57. DOI: 10.2478/s11687-010-0008-9 [17] Mannion, C. M., Schaffer, B., Ozores-Hampton, M., Bryan, H. H., Mcsorley, R. (1994): Nematode population dynamics in municipal solid waste-amended soil during tomato and squash cultivation. Nematropica, 24: 17–24 [18] Marull, J., Pinochet, J., Rodriguez-kabana, R. (1997): Agricultural and

, M.W., H arnett , W. (Eds). Parasitic nematodes: molecular biology, biochemistry and immunology . Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 1 – 24 B lok , V.C., P owers , T.O. (2009): Biochemical and molecular identification In: P erry , R. M oens , M., S tarr , J. (Eds) Root-knot Nematodes , Publisher: CABI Publishing, pp. 98 – 118 B louin , M.S. (2002): Molecular prospecting for cryptic species of nematodes: mitochondrial DNA versus internal transcribed spacer. Int. J. Parasitol. , 32, 527 – 531 C ampos , V.P., V illain , L. (2005): Nematode parasites of coffee

Literature Cited Abad, P., Favery, B., Rosso, M. and Castagnone-Sereno, P. 2003. Root-knot nematode parasitism and host response: molecular basis of a sophisticated interaction. olecular Plant Pathology, 4: 217–224. Akhtar, M. 1991. Studies on the management of plant parasitic nematodes with organic soil amendments. Ph.D. Thesis. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India, p. 195. Ansari, T., Asif, M. and Siddiqui, M.A. 2016. Potential of botanicals for root knot management on tomato. Lambert academic Publishing. ISBN: 9783659910920. Anwar, S.A. and McKenry, M


Artificial pruning of trees can improve wood quality as well as enhance timber value. Currently, pruning is quite common when veneer timber or plywood is in demand. Cutting off branches, however, creates open wounds in the form of knots, which are exposed to infections. While the pruning of coniferous trees is well-studied, less research has been conducted on broadleaved trees. The objective of this study was to determine 1) if the artificial pruning of oak can lead to decaying knots, 2) if so, how big is the decaying zone around the unsound knot, and 3) how much time is needed for full knot occlusion after artificial pruning. 13- and 16-year-old oak trees located in northern Poland (Lidzbark Forest District) were choosen for this study. Ten years after pruning, sample trees were selected in order to determine if the knots were sound and how many years it had taken for each knot to occlude. The results were compared with those of knots on trees caused by natural pruning. In total, 419 and 104 knots resulting from artificial and natural pruning, respectively, were analysed. It was found that 95% of the artificially pruned knots had very little decay, showing an average of 1.13 cm of unsound knot zone. On the naturally pruned control trees, 98% of the knots were unsound with nearly double the amount of knot decay zone. Additionally, the artificially pruned knots needed less than five years to overgrow, while it took over eleven years for the naturally pruned knots to occlude. Therefore, pruning oak trees is recommended, even though a very small decay zone may appear on the knots, because it takes half the time for these artificial knots to occlude in comparison to unpruned trees.

References ABDEL-DAYEM, E.A., ERRIQUENS, F., VERRASTRO, V., SASANELLI, N., MONDELLI, D., COCOZZA C. (2009): Nematicidal and fertilizing effects of chicken manure, fresh and composted olive mill wastes on organic melon. Helminthologia, 49, 4: 259 - 269. DOI: 10.2478/s11687-012-0048-4 AGUIRRE, Y., CROZZOLI, R., GRECO, N. (2003): Effect of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on parsley. Russ. J. Nematol., 11: 27 - 31 ATHAR, N., SPRIGGS, T. W., LIU, P. (1999): The concise New Zealand food composition tables. 4th Ed. Institute of Crop & Food Research

Literature cited Akhtar, M. and Malik, A. 2000. Roles of organic soil amendments and soil organisms in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review. Bioresource Technology , 74: 35-47. Andreogloua, F.I., Vagelasa, I.K., Woodb, M., Samalievc, H.Y. and Gowena, S.R. 2003. Influence of temperature on the motility of Pseudomonas oryzi habitans and control of Globodera rostochiensis . Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 35: 1095–1101. Ashoub, A.H. and Amara, M.T. 2010. Biocontrol Activity of Some Bacterial Genera Against Root-Knot nematode

Generation of Knot Net for Calculation of Quadratic Triangular B-spline Surface of Human Head

This paper deals with calculation of the quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head for the purpose of its modeling in the standard videocodec MPEG-4 SNHC. In connection with this we propose an algorithm of generation of the knot net and present the results of its application for triangulation of the 3D polygonal model Candide. Then for the model and generated knot net as well as an established distribution of control points we show the results of the calculated quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head including its textured version for the texture of the selected avatar.

BI for the control of Meloidogyne arenaria . Fundamental and Applied Nematolology, 16: 239-246. Cheng, X., Liu, X., Wang, H., Ji, X., Wang, K., Wei M. and Qiao, K. 2015. Effect of emamectin benzoate on root-knot nematodes and tomato yield. PLOS ONE, 10(10): e0141235. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141235 Collange, B., Navarrete, M., Peyre, G., Mateille, T. and Tchamitchian, M. 2011. Root knot nematode ( Meloidogyne ) management in vegetable crop production: the challenge of an agronomic system analysis. Crop Protection, 30: 1251–1262. Costat software 2005