Warszawa: 398 ss. KABATA-PENDIAS A. 2000. Biogeochemia kadmu. Kadm w środowisku - problemy ekologiczne i metodyczne. Zesz. Nauk. Komitetu Człowiek i Środowisko PAN , 26: 17-24. LIPIŃSKA J., OPRZĄDEK K. 1999. Pierwiastki śladowe w glebach ogrodów działkowych Siedlec. Zesz. Nauk WSR-P w Siedlcach, Rolnictwo , 56: 89-97. LIPIŃSKA J. 2000. Wpływ wybranych właściwości gleby na zawartość metali ciężkich w warzywach. Zesz. Nauk AP w Siedlcach, Rolnictwo , 57: 151-157. MOCEK A., OWCZARZAK W., TYKSIŃSKI W., KACZMAREK Z. 1995. Metale ciężkie w glebach ogrodów działkowych
The aim of this work is to evaluate the extent of risk for the transfer of heavy metals from contaminated soil to selected parts of crops. The goal is to be achieved under the model conditions of vegetation pot experiment. Soil taken from the area of Výčapy-Opatovce and three types of cereals - millet (Panicum miliaceum) cv. UNIQUM, oats (Avena sativa) cv. ATEGO and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) - were used. For each crop, four variants (A - control with basic ferilization, B, C, D) were made and cadmium in the form of a water-soluble salt of Cd(NO3)2 was applied in gradual specific doses with 5- (variant B), 10- (variant C), 15-fold (variant D) as the limit values by Law no. 220/2004 Z.z. to assess the state of soil contamination. Crops were harvested at ‘full ripeness’ and using the AAS method (VARIAN 240FS) the heavy metal content was determined by the wet mineralization of plant samples. The lowest cadmium content in the aboveground biomass was observed in millet in comparison to other plants, while the highest was recorded in amaranth. The highest increase in the cadmium content in the aboveground biomass in this crop (appr. 18-fold) was noticed in variant C. The lowest cadmium content was also observed in millet seeds. The highest content of Cd in the seeds was recorded in oats in all variants.
Badania przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki uzyskane z eksperymentu polowego. Celem badań było określenie wpływu oczyszczonych ścieków miejskich, zastosowanych w dawce pojedynczej, optymalnej dla danej rośliny (ustalona w oparciu o ładunek N i wody) i podwójnej dawce ścieków na zawartość i specjację Cd i Fb w glebie organicznej obojętnej. W pobranych z każdego obiektu, uśrednionych próbach glebowych, oznaczono zawartość ogółem Cd i Fb oraz specjację tych metali. Wyodrębniono 5 frakcji Cd i Pb zdefiniowanych operacyjnie: wymienną (FI), węglanową określaną jako „związaną specyficznie” (F2), związaną z tlenkami Fe-Mn (F3), organiczną(F4) i pozostałości (F5). Stwierdzono, że całkow ita zawartość ołowiu w badanej glebie odpowia- dała wartościom naturalnym, zaś ilość kadmu przekraczała dopuszczalne normy ustalone dla gleb organicznych. Wyniki chemiczne- go frakcjonow ania Cd i Fb w glebie wytworzonej z torfu niskiego, zarówno z obiektów' naw ożonych oczyszczonymi ściekami, jak i z obiektu kontrolnego przedstaw iają następujące uszeregow anie procentowy ch zawartości poszczególnych frakcji w kolejności ma- lejącej: F3>F2>F4>F1>F5 - kadm, F3>F4>F2>F5>F1 - ołów. Oczyszczone ścieki miejskie, będące źródłem łatwo rozpuszczalnych związków organicznych, mogą w'pływać nawiązanie Cd i Fb we frakcji organicznej, co potwierdza odnotowany w badaniach wzrost ilości metali w tej frakcji w glebie.
The aim of the study was the evaluation of the influence of cadmium on protein profile of flax varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.). Linola and Norlin explants were cultured on control medium Dorothy and with addition of 25 and 75 mg/l Cd(NO3)2. Extracts were separated on DEAE-Cellulose (20 mM Tris-HCl buffer, 0.2-1 M NaCl). Protein content was evaluated by measuring the absorbance at wavelengths 280 and 254 nm. Linola was characterized by proteins occurrence in fractions eluted by 0.4 and 0.6 M NaCl at 25 mg/l of Cd(NO3)2, at 75 mg/l and additionally by 0.3 M NaCl. Norlin showed response in the form of proteins appeared at 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M NaCl gradient at 25 mg/l of cadmium, at higher concentration in fractions eluted by 0.2, 0.5 and 0.6 M NaCl. Electrophoretic analysis showed an increase in the protein bands intensity above 60 kDa and under 52 kDa in extracts from flax cultivated with Cd(NO3)2. Studies showed appearance of new proteins during stress condition.
The risk of Cd and Pb transfer from the soil into the seeds of different cultivars of buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa cultivated in field trial was investigated. Five cultivars from each pseudocereal, that is, buckwheat (Špačinská, Siva, Bamby, Aiva, Madawska), amaranth (Golden Giant, Rawa, Annapurna, Oscar Blanco, Koniz) and quinoa (Temuco, Quinua, Yulai, Carmen, Ccankolla) were analysed. Content of risky metals in soil and pseudocereal seeds was assessed by AAS. Pseudototal contents of metals determined in the soil extract by aqua regia were lower than the limit values given by Law No. 220/2004 with exception of Cd (the soil content was 40% higher than the hygienic limit). Contents of bioavailable forms determined in the soil extract by NH4NO3 (c = 1 mol • dm-3) of all observed metals with exception of Pb were lower than hygienic limits. The determined content of bioavailable Pb forms was 2.3-fold higher than the hygienic limit. The limit value for Cd content was not exceeded in any buckwheat cultivar. The determined Pb content was in cv. Bamby at the level of hygienic limit, and in cv. Madawska twofold higher than the limit given by Foodstuff Codex of the Slovak Republic (FC SR). On the other hand, in seeds of nearly all the investigated amaranth and quinoa cultivars, higher Cd and Pb contents than the maximal allowed amounts in cereals according to FC SR were determined. The presented results indicate the serious risk of Cd and Pb accumulation by seeds of minor plants which are utilised in the production of functional foods.
The pollution of soil by heavy metals is considered to be a big problem in the world today. Currently, attention is being paid to the content of individual heavy metals in the soil-plant-food system. In our work, mainly the effect of bivalent cations of lead, cadmium and zinc and its uptake by faba bean (Faba vulgaris M.) was surveyed.
The results obtained suggest that the incorporation of Pb (200 mg • kg-1 soil) and Cd (10 mg • kg-1) had a negative effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of faba bean. The incorporation of Pb in the faba bean crop is statistically significantly decreased by 24.86%, and the reduction of Cd represented 29.91% compared to the control. In the case of common application of zinc, cadmium and lead in soil (variants C, E), there was a slight increase in crop yield compared to the individual incorporation of heavy metals (variants B, D); in the case of Pb, the increase was 13.14%, and in case of Cd 27.77%. A common application of heavy metals with zinc had a positive influence on quality parameters of the faba bean. We have seen a decrease in Cd to 0.15 ± 0,018 mg • kg-1 (a statistically significant decrease) and decrease in Pb to 0.61 ± 0.17 mg • kg-1 (without significant differences).
The paper presents the impact of varied fertilisation with sewage sludge on the concentration of cadmium and copper in willow organs during the first three years of cultivation. The lowest mean concentration of cadmium in Salix viminalis biomass was found in the plantation fertilised only with mineral fertilisers. The mean content of copper in the biomass of plants fertilised with mineral fertilisers was higher than the content of this metal in plants grown in non-fertilised soil by 23.4%.
It has been shown that the method of fertilisation does not have an impact on the cadmium allocation in different organs. The highest content of cadmium and copper in the willow biomass was found in the foliage (1,76 mg/kgd.m. and 12,73 mg/kgd.m. respectively).
gatunków traw do fi toremediacji kadmu i ołowiu. Cz. I. Kadm . Apar. Bad. Dydakt ., 3, 19-27.  Bosiacki, M., & Wolf, P. (2008). Ocena przydatności wybranych gatunków traw do fi toremediacji kadmu i ołowiu. Cz. II. Ołów. Apar. Bad. Dydakt ., 3, 28-36.  Bosiacki, M. (2008). Accumulation of cadmium in selected species of ornamental plants. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 7 (2), 21-31.  Bosiacki, M., & Golcz, A. (2008). Akumulacja ołowiu w wybranych gatunkach roślin ozdobnych . Wybrane zagadnienia ekologiczne we współczesnym rolnictwie. Przemysłowy Instytut
Orally Administered Melatonin and the Accumulation and Toxicity of Cadmium in the Bank Vole (Myodes Glareolus)
Animal gender and age significantly influence the accumulation and toxicity of heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered melatonin (6 μg/ml), a known antioxidant and metal chelator, on Cd accumulation and toxicity in one month old females and males (young) and five months old bank voles (old) exposed to dietary Cd (100 μg/g) for six weeks. Compared to the Cd alone group, melatonin co-treatment brought about a decrease of Cd concentration in the liver (17% and 20%) and kidneys (39% and 36%) of young female and male bank voles, respectively, while in old animals increased Cd accumulation in liver (65%) and kidneys (81%) and enhanced consumption of Cd-contaminated food (136%) without any effect on their body mass. The results suggest that orally administered melatonin together with cadmium in young bank voles reduces tissue Cd accumulation possibly through forming stable complexes with this metal but in older rodents, melatonin increases concentration of the metal through increasing consumption of Cd-contaminated food.
Humic Acid Decreased Hazardous of Cadmium Toxicity on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
The binding of Cd to humic acid was studied. The influence of a Cd-humic complex on enzyme activities (superoxide dismutases, peroxidases), availability of Cd, and biomass compared with the behavior of no treatment (control). It was examined through a hydroponics system in lettuce. Treatments were: control (no additions), humic acid (0, 100 and 1000 mg·L-1), and Cd (0, 2 and 4 mg·L-1). Enzyme activities increased significantly with increasing rates of cadmium. A significant increase (P<0.05) in cadmium content of leaves result in a considerable decrease in the biomass (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the humic acid applied in the media led to a decrease the metal adsorption by plant. This material can be used to reduce the availability and mobility of heavy metals in the soils, too.