Preux. Boersma H (2004) A Hot Pepper Corn. Richard Baxter’s Doctrine of Justification in Its Seventeenth-Century Context of Controversy . Vancouver: Regent College Publishing. Brown of Wamphray J (1695) The Life of Justification Opened . Utrecht. Calvin J (1559) Institutio Christianae Religionis . Geneva: Robert Stephanus. Calvin J (1960) Institutes of the Christian Religion . Battles F (trans). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Calvin J (2009) Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, with the Antidote, 1547. In John Calvin: Tracts and Letters . Volume 3. Beveridge
In her paper “Argumentation theory and the conception of epistemic justification”, Lilian Bermejo-Luque presents a critique of deductivism in argumentation theory, as well as her own concept of epistemic justification inspired by the views of Stephen Toulmin. Reading this paper induced me to reflect on the mutual relation between the notions of justification and argumentation. In this work I would like to first draw the reader’s attention to a few issues which seem debatable to me, or which I find worth presenting from a slightly different point of view than that of Lilian Bermejo-Luque. I agree that deductivism is not suitable for a general theory of evaluation of arguments although the critique of deductivism presented by the Author appears as not fully adequate to me. Then I proceed to presenting my doubts about the “conception of justification as a proper outcome of good argumentation” presented in the work. I need to emphasise that due to a broad range of topics addressed by me in this short paper, the description of some of them will be neither fully precise nor exhaustive.
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The study provided economic justification for private sector investment in developing, revitalizing and making operable, the rail-freight-corridors between hub-seaports and inland container depots in Nigeria. It estimated the operator-benefits and profitability potentials of investment in each of the ten rail-freight-corridors consisting of existing but inoperable and proposed rail routes from the major seaports to the Inland container depots in different geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Secondary data on the import and export (cargo generation) capacities of each of the ICD regions to and from the respectively connected hub-seaport were obtained from the Nigerian ports authority statistical report covering a period of two years (2018 – 2019) based upon which the annual expected revenue earnings of the operators were estimated. The cost of investment was also obtained. Benefit-Cost-Ratio (BCR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were used to estimate the operator-benefits and profitability potentials of each rail route. It was found that six of the rail routes have BCR > 1; and NPV>0; implying higher operator-benefits over costs within the period while four of the rail-routes have BCR <1; and NPV <0; implying higher operator-costs over benefits.
Efekti investicija se, u zavisnosti od njihove vrste i veličine, različito mogu manifestovati na privredu, zbog čega je potrebno sagledati različite aspekte njihovog vrednovanja. Polazeći od toga da tržište ne može uvijek i pod svim okolnostima pravilno vrednovati sve robe i usluge s gledišta društva, opravdanost s komercijalnog gledišta se može u mnogome razlikovati od opravdanosti s gledišta društva. Osnovno polazište pri tome predstavlja primjena obračunskih umjesto tržišnih cijena, odnosno sagledavanje oportunitetnih koristi i troškova investicionih projekata, budući da su sastavni dio investicije a ne primjenjuju se u najboljoj alternativnoj upotrebi. Polazeći od nedostataka klasičnih finansijskih analiza u identifikaciji i vrednovanju efekata investicionih projekata sa društvenog aspekta, potrebno je afirmisati pristupe koji se u svijetu sve više razvijaju i dobijaju na značaju.
have been lawbreakers as long as there have been laws, but if all law-breaking is defined as civil disobedience, then the term has no value. Then what does exactly make a breach of law an act of civil disobedience? How can it be defined and when is it justified? The following article will explore these questions. I shall focus on the justification to clear up several paradoxes that surround civil disobedience in theory and practice. All I am arguing is that a justifiable civil disobedience is a unique political category that makes social choice possible; that has an
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A usury contract is a null and void contract whereby someone, using the condition of another’s misfortune or material hardship, lack of experience, recklessness, or dependency, obtains for himself or for a third party a benefit that is clearly disproportionate to what he or she has given or done in return or committed to give or do. The usury contract violates one of the basic principles of the law of obligations, which is the principle of equality of obligations, in other words, the equality of the value of mutual benefits of the contracting parties. Although the legal definition of the usury contracts (Law on Contracts and Torts, Article 141, paragraph 1) is comprehensive enough, it is not easy for the courts to decide whether one contract is usury or not, i.e. null and void. The subject of this paper is the analysis of the usury contracts through the current case law in the context of the justification of the existence of this institute in the legislation of Serbia, having in mind the division of opinions, and because as much as a party using a person’s difficult material situation is presented in a negative context, the contract of this type is nonetheless a product of the willing action of both parties. The topic of this paper is very sensitive and requires a reasoned methodological approach and analysis. The aim of the paper is also to encourage the affected party in the usury contract to enter into litigation to protect their rights.
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, Allan. 1990. Wise Choices, Apt Feelings: A Theory of Normative Judgment . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Goldman, Alvin. 1979. What is justified belief? In Justification and Knowledge: New Studies in Epistemology , edited by G. Pappas. Dordrecht: Reidel. Goldman, Alvin. 2006. Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kim, Jaegwon. 1988. What is ‗Naturalized Epistemology’? Philosophical Perspectives 2: 381-406. Mackie, J.L. 1977. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong . Harmondsworth