Ocena Izpostavljenosti Otrok Svincu v Celjskih Vrtcih
Izhodišče: Z raziskavo smo želeli oceniti, kolikšnemu zdravstvenemu tveganju so zaradi prisotnosti povečane vsebnosti svinca v okolju izpostavljeni otroci, ki obiskujejo vrtce v Celju. Posebej smo želeli opredeliti dejanske sprejete količine svinca in oceniti delež, ki se absorbira v telo.
Metode: Ocena izpostavljenosti svincu temelji na metodi posrednega ocenjevanja izpostavljenosti preko zraka, vode, hrane in tal. Pri izračunu sprejetega odmerka smo upoštevali tudi dejavnike absorpcije, v primeru prahu in prsti pa tudi biološko dostopnost svinca.
Rezultati: Vnos svinca preko hrane, vode, zraka in mivke (prahu, prsti) v Celju dosega 20,5 % začasno dopustnega tedenskega vnosa (angl. Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake, PTWI), ki je ob upoštevanju najslabšega možnega scenarija za otroka, težkega 20 kg, 500 μg.
Zaključek: Rezultati opravljene raziskave kažejo, da zaradi igranja na igriščih vrtcev v Celju ne prihaja do povečanega tveganja za zdravje otrok. S tehničnimi ukrepi je potrebno zmanjšati izpostavljenost otrok svincu, ki je v tleh in v prahu, ter preprečiti nadaljnje onesnaževanje elementov okolja.
The effects of particulate matter air pollution on respiratory health and on the cardiovascular system
Particulate matter (PM) is a major component of urban air pollution and has a significant effect on human health. Natural PM sources are volcanic eruptions, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation and sea spray. Traffic, domestic heating, power plants and various industrial processes generate significant amounts of anthropogenic PM. PM consists of a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air. The chemical composition of particles is very complex and depends on emission sources, meteorological conditions and their aerodynamic diameter. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to PM of varying size fractions is associated with an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Adverse health effects have been documented from studies of both acute and chronic exposure. The most severe effects in terms of overall health burden include a significant reduction in life expectancy by a several months for the average population, which is linked to long-term exposure to moderate concentrations of PM. Nevertheless, numerous deaths and serious cardiovascular and respiratory problems have also been attributed to short-term exposure to peak levels of PM. Although many studies attribute greater toxicity to smaller size fractions, which are able to penetrate deeper into the lung, the molecular mechanisms and the size fractions of the PM that are responsible for the observed diseases are not completely understood.
Catalase (CAT) is part of the enzymatic defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS), known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asbestosis. This study investigates whether CAT -262 C>T genetic polymorphism influences the risk of asbestosis in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos.
The nested case-control study included 262 cases with asbestosis and 265 controls with no asbestos-related disease. Data on cumulative asbestos exposure and smoking were available. A real-time PCR assay was introduced for genotyping CAT -262 C>T promoter polymorphism.
A slightly elevated risk of asbestosis was observed in subjects with the CAT -262 TT genotype compared to others (OR=1.36, CI 0.70-2.62). This risk did not change substantially after adjustment by sex, age, and smoking, but the involvement of cumulative asbestos exposure changed the OR to 1.91 (CI 0.93-3.91). These findings indicate that the CAT -262 TT genotype may be slightly associated with an increased risk of asbestosis. No synergistic effect was found between cumulative asbestos exposure and the CAT -262 TT genotype, but cumulative asbestos exposure acted as a confounder. These results are an important contribution to understanding the interactions between genetic and environmental factors that may modify the risk of asbestosis.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is rated as a serious public health issue. Knowing children are accounted as more vulnerable to environmental health hazards, data are needed on air quality in schools.
A project was conducted from 2007 until 2009 (SEARCH, School Environment and Respiratory Health of Children), aiming to verify links between IAQ and children’s respiratory health. Study was conducted in ten primary schools on 735 children, in 44 classrooms. Children were randomly selected. Research tools and indicators used for children’s exposure to school environment were indoor and outdoor pollutants, two standardized questionnaires for school and classroom characteristics. In both classroom air and ambient air in front of them we measured, during a 5-day exposure period for continuous 24h measuring: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, indoor air temperature, relative humidity, and PM10 during classes.
PM10 concentrations were significantly most frequent in an interval of ≥80.1μg/m3, that is, in the interval above 50μg/m3. Mean PM10 value was 82.24±42.43 μg/m3, ranging from 32.00μg/m3 to of 197.00μg/m3.
The increase of outdoor PM10 concentration significantly affects the increase of indoor PM10. A statistically significant difference exists for average IAQ PM10 concentrations vs. indicators of indoor thermal comfort zone (p<0.0001); they are lower in the classrooms with indicators within the comfort zone. Moreover, dominant factors for the increase of PM10 are: high occupancy rate in the classroom (<2m2 of space per child), high relative humidity (>75%), and indoor temperature beyond 23°C, as well as bad ventilation habits (keeping windows shut most of the time).
Izhodišča: Zdravstveni delavci so pri nekaterih diagnostičnih in terapevtskih postopkih izpostavljeni nizkim dozam ionizirajočega sevanja. Kronična izpostavljenost nizkim dozam sevanja ima lahko veliko negativnih posledic na zdravje človeka, kot je pojav katarakte, med najresnejšimi pa je povečano tveganje za obolevnost za nekaterimi vrstami raka. Smernice za varnost pri delu z viri sevanja in zakonodaja imajo za cilj zmanjšati izpostavljenost delavcev ionizirajočemu sevanju do take mere, kot je to mogoče doseči z uporabo razumnih ukrepov. Članek je usmerjen v prikaz in diskusijo efektivnih letnih doz obdobja 2006-2010, ki so jih prejeli slovenski zdravstveni delavci, ki delajo z umetnimi viri ionizirajočega sevanja.
Metode: Pridobili smo podatke osebne dozimetrije od leta 2006 do leta 2010, ki jih zbira Uprava RS za varstvo pred sevanji (URSVS).
Rezultati: V Sloveniji je mejna efektivna letna doza postavljena pri 20 mSv. Letne doze, ki so jih prejeli zdravstveni delavci, niso bile v nobeni skupini višji od 9,99 mSv, v večini skupin delavcev je bilo nad 95 % doz v doznem območju pod 1 mSv (v nuklearni medicini in brahiterapiji okoli 80 %). Povprečne doze za obdobje od leta 2006 do leta 2010 so 0,47 mSv za nuklearno medicino, 0,19 mSv za interventno radiologijo, 0,09 mSv za preostalo radiologijo, 0,10 mSv za brahiterapijo, 0,07 mSv za teleradioterapijo, 0,05 mSv za dentalno medicino in 0,02 mSv za druge zaposlene v zdravstvu.
Zaključki: V Sloveniji so zdravstveni delavci v zadnjih petih letih prejemali nekaj desetkrat nižje efektivne letne doze od zakonsko predpisane omejitve, kar je primerljivo z razvitim svetom.
Nanotoxicology for Safe and Sustainable Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where the phenomena take place at nanoscale dimensions. Nanoparticles are particles with <100 nm in one dimension. They have different physical, chemical, electrical and optical properties than those that occur in bulk samples of the same material. Understanding these nanoscale properties and finding ways to engineer new nanomaterials will have a revolutionary impact, from more efficient energy generation and data storage to improved methods for diagnosing and treating diseases. Nanotechnology is poised to become a major factor in the world's economy and part of our everyday lives in the near future. Hundreds of tonnes of nanoparticles already enter the environment annually, but still very little is known of their interactions with biological systems. Recent studies indicate that some nanoparticles are not completely benign to biological and environmental targets. The challenge for toxicologists is to identify key factors that can be used to predict toxicity, permit targeted screening, and allow material scientists to generate new, safer nanoparticles with this structure-toxicity information in mind. The aim of this paper is to summarize some known facts about nanomaterials and discuss future perspectives, regulatory issues and tasks of the emerging branch of toxicology, that is, nanotoxicology.
References Koprivnikar H. Izpostavljenost tobačnemu dimu in kadilske navade polnoletne populacije RS v letih 2006 in 2008. Ljubljana: Inštitut za varovanje zdravja RS, 2009. Inštitut za varovanje zdravja RS. Podatkovne zbirke — zdravstveni statistični podatki. Pridobljeno julija 2009 s spletne strani www.espad.org/espad-reports Inštitut za varovanje zdravja RS. Podatkovne zbirke — zdravstveni statistični podatki. Pridobljeno 10. decembra 2009 s spletne strani http://www.ivz.si/index.php?akcija=novica&n=1823 Zdravstveni statistični letopis: Slovenija. 2006
Slovene press has recently expressed concern for the health of children who ingest playground sand contaminated with lead. However, current assessments may be overestimating the health risk, as they assume that human body absorbs the whole amount of a contaminant. The aim of our study was to see how much lead in sand intended for playground sandboxes in Slovenia really is absorbed and what health risk it may present. To do that, we ran bioaccessibility tests to simulate metabolism and see how digestion affects lead levels. Our results show low bioaccessibility of lead from sand (0.01- 36.84 %). Taking into account lead bioaccessibility, we ran several scenarios of sand ingestion in children and established that in general the risk is negligible, except for pica behaviour with extremely high (20 g) ingestion of sand with highly mobilised lead (2.69 μg g-1). Further research should assess real-life exposure to lead from playground sand in children and perhaps update these preliminary bioaccessibility data.
This multicentre, cross-sectional observational study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among the working population of Slovenia and identify factors correlating with higher prevalence of depression. It was conducted in three occupational medicine practices within major Slovenian primary health care centres. The study population consisted of 1,474 respondents [73.7 % of the invited participants, 889 (60.3 %) men and 585 (39.7 %) women with mean age of (40.5±9.8) years] who visited these practices for their regular check-ups from November 2010 to June 2012 and were asked to fill in a self-developed questionnaire and score depression on the Zung’s self-rating depression scale. According to the rating, 50 (3.4 %) respondents suffered from depression. In the multivariate analysis, depression correlated with the following independent variables: self-perceived exposure to chronic stress, positive family history of depression, and primary school education.
Comparison of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Toxicity in Rat Astrocytes in Primary Culture
This study compared the effects of toxicity of ethanol and its first metabolite acetaldehyde in rat astrocytes through cell viability and cell proliferation. The cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanol in the presence or absence of a catalase inhibitor 2-amino-1,2,4 triazole (AMT) or with different concentrations of acetaldehyde. Cell viability was assessed using the trypan blue test. Cell proliferation was assessed after 24 hours and after seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde.
We showed that both ethanol and acetaldehyde decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In proliferation studies, after seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde, we observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in cell number. The protein content study showed biphasic dose-response curves, after 24 hours and seven days of exposure to either ethanol or acetaldehyde. Co-incubation in the presence of AMT significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of ethanol on cell proliferation.
We concluded that long-term exposure of astrocytes to ethanol is more toxic than acute exposure. Acetaldehyde is a much more potent toxin than ethanol, and at least a part of ethanol toxicity is due to ethanol's first metabolite acetaldehyde.