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Microstructural Characterisation of Archeologic Finds Discovered at the Ironworks in Mădăraș

Abstract

In the middle of the 16th century the ironworks of Mădăraș was one of the important centres of iron production. During its one and a half century lifespan its output provided a significant part of Transylvania’s iron supply. While it operated it used up the entire raw material extracted in the iron ore mines of the Felcsík basin. This study presents the reconstructed ground-plan of the ironworks, its layout on the shores of the Mădăraș creek, and the chemical composition and microstructure of the samples discovered during exploration of the location by means of XRF analysis, EDS analysis and metallography. The analysis of the pig iron, the steel and the slag although performed on individual samples, still provides a good approach regarding the products of the ironworks, their chemical composition and microstructural characteristics.

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Geomorphological conditions of the location historical ironworks. A contribution to the research based on DEM analysis from LIDAR data

Abstract

The aim of this study was to present the use of the natural elements of the relief of river valleys such as changes in the width of the valley bottom, landforms occurring in the bottom of the valley, differences in height of the valley terraces as favourable for the location of the dam partitioning the bottom of the valley and creating a water reservoir for the requirements of historic metallurgical centres. The research was carried out based on DEM analysis from LiDAR data. Features were chosen in river basins with a rich metallurgical legacy. Analysis of the location of the former ironworks was carried out using Surfer 12 software. Five centres were selected due to the fact that only these are the only centres suitable for research which have survived to this day. Using the shaded relief models and contour coloured maps absolute differences in height between valley levels and other forms of relief occurring in the valley were analyzed, as well as the distribution of individual terrain forms in the designated part of the valley and changes in the width of the valley bottom were analysed in the context of the location of former metallurgical centres. On the basis of the contours of the former water reservoir visible in the valley relief, and using a surface area measurement tool (Surfer software), the range of the area that the reservoir could cover was measured. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be seen that convenient geomorphological conditions were used for the placement of selected weirs and metallurgical ponds which facilitated the damming of the valley. Natural narrowing of the valley bottom, or dunes and hills directly adjacent to the valley floor, were utilised during the construction of the dam. The rivers on which the furnace ponds were constructed are relatively small watercourses, so the weirs created by the constructors are not impressive. Their height is generally in the range of about 2 to 3 metres and their length is from about 120 to 300 metres. Nevertheless, they were effective in allowing sufficient water retention and the creation of furnace ponds with a measured area of about 4.5 ha to about 25 ha.

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The analysis of machine operation and equipment loss in ironworks and steelworks

Abstract

The article presents a case study of the identification and analysis of operating and equipment losses in a steel plant. Losses may be visible in costs resulting from premature wear of machine and equipment components, removal of emergency failures related to quality losses, including loss of reputation of a reliable supplier, as well as losses related to production, especially in the case of continuous production. The analysis of losses was based on the cost criterion, including losses resulting from the loss of a potential client. The real data from the 2016 were used in the case study. In order to ensure proper operation at the finishing department, standard solutions have been developed. The analysis of losses was based on the Pareto principle and the analysis of TPM coefficients.

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Historical water-powered ferrous metallurgy reconstructed from tree-rings and lacustrine deposits (Mała Panew basin, southern Poland)

Abstract

According to historical sources in the basin of Mała Panew River there were at least 56 water-powered iron smelters from 14th-19th century. Now only two metallurgy plants work in the area. Many of the former smelting settlements ceased to exist. Historical data on the smelting industry in the area are often scarce. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the history of ferrous metallurgy from (1) the remains of wooden historical buildings, (2) remains of charcoal kilns and (3) deposits from former smelter pond. Results show that Regolowiec smelting settlement existed already in the 17th century (at least several decades earlier than historical written sources suggest) and was later re-paired after destruction caused probably by floods. Charcoal used for iron smelting in the ironworks in Brusiek on the Mała Panew River was burnt at the turn of the 18th century. This is in accordance with historical sources indicating particular prosperity of the metallurgy in that period. Upstream of the ironworks in Brusiek in the first half of the 17th century a large pond existed flooding the floor of the Mała Panew valley. Study has shown that the pond was at least 100 years older than historical sources have indicated.

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Charcoal kilns as a source of data on the past iron industry (an example from the River Czarna valley, Central Poland)

Abstract

Charcoal was the primary fuel used for iron smelting and processing until the end of the 19th century. It was produced through burning piles of wood called charcoal kilns. The aim of the study was to identify and record traces of charcoal kilns related to past ironworks in the valley of the River Czarna (Małopolska Upland, Central Poland). Detailed analysis was conducted in areas adjacent to historical centres of iron processing in Maleniec, Kołoniec and Machory. A quantitative analysis of the traces of charcoal kilns in the topography was done based on DEM from airborne LiDAR. Soil profiles were analysed at the sites where traces of charcoal kilns were identified from DEM. Radiocarbon dating and palaeobotanical analyses were performed for selected charcoal from kiln remnants. In the study area we identified over 11,500 charcoal kilns. The radiocarbon age of these charcoals indicate that the charcoal kilns under study were used in the 15th, 18th and 19th century. Thus the results suggest that the iron industry in the studied area is c 100 years older than the historical written sources indicate. Palaeobotanical analyses show that coniferous trees were used for charcoal production. The large number of traces of charcoal kilns and their wide spatial distribution indicate that past charcoal production has had a significant impact on the environment and landscape change in the River Czarna valley and adjacent areas.

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The impact of revitalization on the evolution of urban space on former iron and steel works areas in Ruhr region (Germany)

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to consider the extent of the impact of revitalization on the evolution of post-industrial sites, which manifests itself in morphological and functional changes of urban space. Research was performed on three former iron and steel works areas located in the Ruhr region in Germany: one of the Thyssen's ironworks in Duisburg - Meiderich, the area of steelworks complex Gute-Hoffnungs-Hütte in Oberhausen and the area of the iron and steel works Phönix in Dortmund - Hörde. Methods were applied specific to urban morphology. For each object of study a comparative analysis of the town plan was carried out. Town plans were compared before and after the revitalization process and special attention was paid to land use. This allowed us to observe morphological and functional changes which occurred as a result of the revitalization of the study areas. The research showed that the revitalization of post-industrial space may be conducted in many different directions but irrespective of that it has a huge impact on the evolution of urban space in both a morphological and a functional way. The extent to which revitalization affects morphological and functional structure of urban space depends on the future plan for the spatial development of the site and its attitude to its post-industrial heritage.

Open access
The use of ammonium sulfate as an inhibitor of dioxin synthesis in iron ore sintering process

Abstract

The main air pollutants in the sintering process of iron ore are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and harmful dust. Ore sintering on sinter strands is one of the first technology steps in the ironworks. It is a process in which iron ore is crushed, subjected to annealing and mixed with appropriate additives, and then sintered in order to produce sinter which is the main component of iron in the blast furnace process. PCDD/Fs emissions were measured and the addition of ammonium sulfate as an inhibitor of the synthesis of dioxins in the sintering process of iron ore was studied.

Open access
The smoothing methods used in assessing the influence of pollution sources on groundwater quality – a case study of metallurgical landfill in Lipówka (southern Poland)

Abstract

Several methods have been used to determine trends in hydrogeochemical elements. This study is concerned with the ordinary 3-period moving averages, the 3-period moving median and the exponential smoothing method. It has taken into account the chloride concentration in groundwater from the region of the landfill of the Katowice Ironworks (southern Poland). The data from two piezometers were used: T1 screened in the Triassic and Q1 screened in the Quaternary aquifers. The main aim of this article was to compare statistical methods and to choose the most appropriate method for an assessment of the impact of pollution sources on groundwater quality and determining any trends. The choice of chlorides as the analyzed indicator is connected with their chemical conservative character. They are also indicators of negative impact on groundwater of e.g. municipal, metallurgical landfill sites on groundwater. Results showed that the moving median is less sensitive to outliers than the moving average. The running median preserves sharp discontinuities in the signal but the biggest smoothing was observed in the case of exponential smoothing. All of these methods filter out the noise and transform the data into a smooth curve, which is unbiased by outliers. Application of the smoothing method allowed the generalization of the monitoring data which clearly showed trends. In the absence of reliable data for short periods, these statistical methods made it possible to fill in missing values. These methods are easier to calculate than regression models even if they ignore complex relationships in the data. Moreover, they can also be used as a component in many other indicators such as the Moving Average Convergence Divergence.

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Processes of economic restructuring and functional transformations of an industrial city based on the city of Żory, Poland

Abstract

For decades the Silesian voivodeship has played a key role in the development of the economy of Poland. Its central area is occupied by an old industrial region which has been developed since the 19th century on the basis of coal mining and the processing of iron, zinc and lead ores. As a result of the political transformation of the country, after 1989, the region was faced with a difficult economic situation – a significant reduction in production was recorded and numerous unprofitable obsolete mines and steelworks were decommissioned. Since then, the economy of the Silesian region has been subject to restructuring and revitalization. This article presents this process as illustrated by a representative city – Żory. This is one of the oldest cities in the region which was established in the Middle Ages (1272). For centuries, its inhabitants were engaged in agriculture, fish breeding and trade. Its industrial development started with the construction of the ironworks at the beginning of the 19th century, but the investments after the Second World War were of greatest importance to the city. At that time the “Fadom” factory, two hard coal mines – “Żory” and “Krupiński” – and a plant known as Zakład Tworzyw Sztucznych ERG (Synthetic Fibres Works “ERG”) were constructed. After the political and economic changes of 1989 the economy of the city required urgent restructuring. The change of the function of the city of Żory proceeded gradually, but the creation of economic areas and zones, especially the establishment of the Jastrzębie Zdrój and Żory Subzone of the Katowice Special Economic Zone (1996) and Żory Industrial Park (2004), were of crucial importance to the development of the city. Over the past 20 years the city of Żory has changed from a city dependent on the extractive industries, without signs of a developed urban infrastructure, to a centre of a varied structure of production. Employment in industry and construction decreased from 65.5% to 36.3%, and doubled in the case of services. The private sector currently comprises 75% of all economic entities – most of the companies are small or medium-sized enterprises up to 250 employees.

Open access
Concentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Iron in Sediment Dust and Total Suspended Particles Before and After Initialisation of Integral Production in Iron and Steel Work Plant Zenica

plants in environment in ironworks Zenica. In: Ekinović S, editor. Proceedings of the 7 th Reasrch/Expert Conference with International Participation "Quality 2011"; 1-4 June 2011. Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Zenica: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Zenica; 2011. p. 743-8. Trako E, Bukalo E, Ramović M, Latinović E, Salčinović A, Semić M, Mitrović M. Elaborat o zagađenosti zemljišta neorganskim i organskim polutantima na području Općine Zenica, Elaborat [Monitoring of soil pollution with inorganic and organic pollutants on area of Zenica

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