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Differences in the Development and Investment in Human Capital in the Member States of the European Union
Human capital and knowledge are most important factors of current development processes, contributing to the innovativeness and competitiveness of the economies. The important role of these factors was underlined also in Europe 2020 Strategy. However, due to immaterial character of investment in human capital and because of the high level of decentralization of human capital development policy, these actions are characterized by a relatively low efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is firstly to identify the importance of human capital development policy within EU policies. Secondly, it is to identify and conduct a comparative analysis of national differences in human capital development and to identify points of reference for key measures of the development in question. Thirdly, this paper is to specify models of human capital development policy from the perspective of how much involved local authorities are in its implementation and efficiency.
Cities provide conditions for the development of creativity and creative capital; some cities have made it an area of strategic intervention. Surely, there is a strong link between the creativity of a city and the value of social capital in a given territory. Hence, it is vital to answer the following questions: To what extent does investment in human capital determine the value of creative capital? What to invest in? Can one invest efficiently taking advantage of the attractive and popular virtual space? These are the questions explored by the present authors. Their specific goal is to assess the importance of social networks as a modern ICT tool for establishing relations, and of open networks in the dissemination of knowledge and in the development of creative communities.
Women are spending an ever longer part of their lives enrolled in education programs. A crucial question in this context is how motherhood can be reconciled and correlated with continued investment in human capital. A related question concerns the role the socioeconomic context plays in the education/family life balance. In the present study we account for the finding that a pregnancy resulting in a first birth usually triggers the termination of formal education, and, conversely, that the completion of education is often followed by a first birth. We use a simultaneous-hazard two-equation model, controlling for common potential but unobserved determinants. Relative to work already done on these matters, our study extends previous investigations to Eastern European countries which have not been adequately researched so far. To strengthen comparison, we have additionally included two Western European countries. This allowed us to assess the importance of political context. The results show that despite efforts to offer women the possibility of choosing both motherhood and being enrolled in education, the educational policies which were introduced in some Eastern European countries after the fall of communist political regimes could not counteract the negative effects of the transition to a market economy. In these formerly communist countries, the continuation of studies in parallel with childbearing and family formation has become more difficult.
Objective: The main objective of this paper is to reveal the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and human capital.
Methodology: The analysis consists in a presentation of main achievements in the literature regarding the contribution of human capital to the attraction of FDI.
Findings: The investment in human capital formation has leaded to the increase of labour productivity. This will ultimately result in economic growth. Education has the most important role in the process of human capital formation.
Value added: FDI has an important role to play in human resource development through its ability to enhance new skills, information and technologies in multinational enterprises. In this way, FDI becomes a determinant factor for education and professional training, because it is the link between the immediate reality based on creation, introduction of new skills, new technologies and provision of a wide range of information and initial training direction.
Recommendations: The economic policies should focus on the attraction of FDI that ensures the improvement of human capital quality. On the other hand, the education policies should focus on a better connection of the human resources to the requirements of the labour market and to offer acknowledge and practice that will help the graduates to correspond to the expectations of foreign investors.
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