The list of invasive alien species of European Union concern currently includes 23 plant species. The aim of this study was to assess the potential and importance of introduction pathways for invasive alien plant species in Lithuania, to estimate probability of their establishment and further spread in the country. Analysis of all available information revealed that three species (Asclepias syriaca, Heracleum sosnowskyi and Impatiens glandulifera) currently occur in Lithuania and the latter two are widespread invasive species in the country. The remaining 20 plant species have not been registered in the wild in Lithuania so far. Four of these, Gunnera tinctoria, Lysichiton americanus, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Pennisetum setaceum, are occasionally cultivated in gardens or other outdoor areas, and six species, e.g. Cabomba caroliniana, Eichhornia crassipes, Lagarosiphon major, are cultivated in aquaria or other indoor spaces. Naturalization of seven species is unlikely in the country, whereas naturalization of 13 species (Lysichiton americanus, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Pennisetum setaceum, etc.) is plausible. Five of the analysed and still not recorded species are recognized as potentially invasive in Lithuania; the invasion of five species is plausible and that of 10 species is unlikely. The most important pathway of introduction of the analysed species is ornamental gardening. Three species that have not been recorded in Lithuania, but occur in the neighbouring regions of Europe (Elodea nuttallii, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum persicum) can enter the country by natural means. Importance of permanent studies and surveys on alien plants aiming to ensure early detection and eradication of invasive species is discussed.
This paper presents information about ten new alien plant species recorded in Lithuania in the period from 1995 to 2014. These species belong to eight families: Cucurbitaceae (Lagenaria siceraria), Juncaceae (Luzula sylvestris), Lamiaceae (Physostegia virginiana, Sideritis montana), Poaceae (Melica altissima, Miscanthus sacchariflorus), Portulacaceae (Claytonia perfoliata), Scrophulariaceae (Digitalis purpurea), Solanaceae (Datura inoxia) and Zygophyllaceae (Tribulus terestris). Three species (Claytonia perfoliata, Sideritis montana and Tribulus terestris) were introduced accidentally, whereas other seven species were introduced deliberately and later escaped from cultivation. One species, Luzula sylvatica, is ascribed to the group of established aliens, whereas other recorded species are treated as casual. Local establishment of Claytonia perfoliata, Digitalis purpurea and Melica altissima is expected, whereas Miscanthus sacchariflorus can become established and even invasive in the future.
The study is aimed at identifying pathways frequently used by non-native plant species, assessing their relative significance and development in time. Pathways were defined following NOBANIS framework (Madsen et al., 2014). Species assessments were based on HARMONIA scheme (Branquart, 2007). Four categories of environmental hazards were assessed plus two additional categories summarizing impacts on health and economy. Temporal development of pathways was assessed using cumulative per annum taxa records. To quantify the activity of investigated pathways over time an index (δ10) showing the number of new species introduced during the period of 10 years was calculated. The study shows that horticulture, landscaping and agriculture can be pointed out as pathways of concern in Iceland. A set of species of concern is also proposed. Two plant taxa are included in A list (high risk species): Anthriscus sylvestis and Lupinus nootkatensis. Three taxa are placed in B list (watch list): Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum persicum and Pinus contorta. Results of the present study are compared with similar studies carried out in Denmark, Scandinavia and Baltic countries. Different measures to prevent introductions of new and potentially dangerous non-native species are also discussed including selection of good practices that may significantly reduce the threat from non-native species used in agriculture and horticulture.
The present paper is based on the literature review and the recent information about the distribution range of the alien brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus Ives, 1891 in the Mediterranean Sea. This alien species has spread throughout the Mediterranean Sea (especially the eastern part) mainly through ship/ballast water introductions and has presently been reported by eight countries (27 localities). Introduction pathways and chronological distribution patterns of the alien brown shrimp species are discussed. Penaeus aztecus forms dense populations along the coast of the Turkish Mediterranean Sea, and it has a potential for colonising the native habitats of autochthonous species.
The aim of the present paper is to revise the distribution range of the invasive freshwater fish species, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck and Schlegel, 1846) in Turkey, based on the literature review. After the first report of the species from the Meriç River in Thrace (European part of Turkey) in 1982, it has spread across the country mainly through human-mediated accidental introductions. The species has now been reported from 66 water bodies in total. Besides the introduction pathways, we also present chronological distribution pattern of the species. This information is useful especially for conservation endemic ichthyofauna due to the negative impact of Pseudorasbora parva, particularly through introducing an emerging infectious eukaryotic intracellular pathogen on the fungal-animal boundary, Sphaerothecum destruens Arkush et al., 2003.
Pliszko A., 2014: A new Polish record of Dracocephalum thymiflorum [Nauja Dracocephalum thymiflorum radvietė Lenkijoje]. - Both. Lith., 20(1): 64-66.
The paper presents a new record of a rare casual alien Dracocephalum thymiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) in Poland. A small population consisting of 42 generative individuals of this species was found in May 2013 on railway embankment in Okuniowiec village near the northeastern boundary of the town of Suwałki in the Polish part of the Lithuanian Lakeland. The current distribution (according to the ATPOL cartogram grid) is given, and introduction pathways via railway transport and contaminated crop seed are recognized
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