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Intravenous Iron Is Effective and Safe in Correcting Anemia in Erythropoietin-Treated Hemodialysis Patients

. Intravenous iron versus erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: friends or foes in treating chronic kidney disease anemia? Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2009;16(2):143-51.; 14:271. 8. Agarwal R, Warnock D. Issues related to iron replacement in chronic kidney disease. Semin Nephrol. 2002; 22 (6):479-87. 9. Albaramki J, Hodson EM, Craig JC, Webster AC. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1(CD007857): 51:24. 10. Qunibi WY, Martinez C, Smith M, Benjamin J

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Idiopatic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome Treated Successfully with High-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulins

leak syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine 2011; 155(5): 335-336. 11. Lambert M, Launay D, Hachulla E, et al . High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins dramatically reverse systemic capillary leak syndrome. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 2184-2187. 12. Vigneau C, Haymann JP, Khoury N, et al . An unusual evolution of the systemic capillary leak syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17: 492-494. 13. Basta M, Fries LF, Frank MM. High doses of intravenous Ig inhibit in vitro uptake of C4 fragments onto sensitized erythrocytes. Blood 1991; 77: 376-380.

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Strategies to Enhance the Intravenous Treatment Satisfaction and Drug Safety Awareness Among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in Macedonia

REFERENCES 1. Hutchinson M, et al. Intravenous therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Future Prescriber 2008; Volume 8(1): 15. 2. Weinshenker BG, et al. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographic based study. I. Clinical course and disability. Brain. 1989 Feb; 112 (Pt 1): 133-46. 3. Cree B. Emerging monoclonal antibody therapies for multiple sclerosis. Neurologist 2006; 12: 171–178. 4. Hohlfeld R, Wekerle H. Drug Insight: using monoclonal antibodies to treat multiple sclerosis. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2005; 1: 34

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Total Intravenous Versus Inhalation Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies. Effects on Two Proinflammatory Cytokines Serum Levels: Il-32 and TNF-Alfa.

;59:954-9. 8. Wang S, Chen Y, Lin H, Chen L. Comparison of surgical stress response to laparoscopic and open radical cystectomy. World J Urol. 2010;28:451-5. 9. Ihn CH, Joo JD, Choi JW, et al. Comparison of stress hormone response, interleukin-6 and anaesthetic characteristics of two anaesthetic techniques: volatile induction and maintenance of anaesthesia using sevoflurane versus total intravenous anaesthesia using propofol and remifentanil. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1760-71. 10. Ke J, Zhan J, Feng X, Wu Y, Rao Y, Wang Y. A comparison of the

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Original article. Intravenous sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy in very elderly patients of Thailand


Background: The use of sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) procedures in elderly patients has been established as a safe and effective technique. However, it is still uncertain whether the situation is valid for Asians.

Objective: Evaluate the outcome of intravenous sedation (IVS) for GIE procedures in very elderly patients (>86 years old) in Thailand and compare the clinical efficacy of IVS between very elderly and those younger (<86 years old)

Methods: We undertook a retrospective review of the sedation service records of patients who underwent GIE procedures between 2007 and 2008 at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. All sedations were administered by anesthetic personnel in the endoscopy room. The cohort was divided into three groups, <65 years old (group 1), 65-85 years old (group 2), and >86 years old (group 3).

Results: Sedation was provided for 1,779 patients (965, 687, and 127 patients in group 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in 2,061 GIE procedures. Fentanyl, midazolam and propofol were the most common IVS drugs used in all three groups. Patients in group 3 required lower mean doses of these intravenous sedatives than those in group 1 or 2 (p <0.001). Mean procedure time in group 3 was longer than in group 1 or 2 (p=0.010). Adverse events in group 3 occurred more frequently when compared to group 1 or 2 (p <0.001). Transient hypotension was the main complication across all aged groups.

Conclusion: IVS for GIE procedure in very elderly patients was associated with higher minor advance events but relatively safe and effective when carried out by trained anesthetic personnel with appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment.

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Original article. Incidence and severity of acute adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: 8-year experience in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital


Background: Increasing numbers of acute adverse reactions to contrast media are being seen. Institutional information about incidence and severity of acute adverse reactions to contrast media is essential to inform radiologists of the both common and life-threatening acute adverse reactions encountered.

Objectives: We determined the overall, type-specific and severity of acute adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media at King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital between January 2002 and December 2009.

Methods: This retrospective study reviewed 663 report forms for acute adverse reactions to contrast media among 74,010 intravenous iodinated contrast injections using five types of contrast media including meglumine/sodium ioxitalamate, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, and iobitridol.

Results: The overall incidence of acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media was about 0.9%. Of these 0.8% were minor, and 0.1% were major reactions. The majority of minor reactions were urticaria and the majority of major reactions were facial edema. One contrast-related death was reported. Incidence of acute adverse reactions to nonionic contrast media was 0.58%, and was 4.29 % in the ionic group. The type-specific incidence of acute adverse reactions was 4.29% for meglumine/sodium ioxitalamate, 0.82% for iohexol, 0.29% for iopamidol, 0.65% for iopromide, and 0.25% for iobitridol.

Conclusion: Acute adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media account for less than one percent of injections. The incidence is higher in the ionic contrast media group. The majority of reactions are mild. However, severe reactions can still be encountered and death related to contrast media exist.

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Cardiorespiratory and Hemodynamic Effects of Medetomidine or Xylazine with Atropine and Diazepam Premedication for Total Intravenous Anesthesia Induced and Maintained with Propofol/Fentanyl in Dogs Undergoing Surgery

(1), 149-155. 4. Smith I, White PF, Nathanson M, Gouldson R: Propofol. An update on its clinical use. Anesthesiology 1994, 81:1005-43. 5. Bajwa SJS, Bajwa SK, Kaur J: Comparison of two drug combinations in total intravenous anesthesia: Propofol-ketamine and propofol-fentanyl. Saudi J Anaesth 2010, 4:72-9. 6. Le Guellec C, Lacarelle B, Villard PH, Point H, Catalin J, Durand A: Glucuronidation of propofol in microsomal fractions from various tissues and species including humans: effect of different drugs. Anesth Analg

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Suicide by Fentanyl

, Wertmann A. GC/MS in Clinical Chemistry. Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH; 1999. Moffa AC, Osselton MD, Widdop B. Clarke's Analysis of Drugs and Poisons in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Postmortem Material. 3 rd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2004. Tharp AM, Winecker RE and Winston DC. Fatal intravenous fentanyl abuse four cases involving extraction of fentanyl from transdermal patches. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 200425:178-81.

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Pharmacokinetics of penicillin antibiotics: intravenous-to-oral switch therapy

: 125-8. Damrikarnlert L, Jauregui AC, Kzadri M. Efficacy and safety of amoxycillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) twice daily versus three times daily in the treatment of acute otitis media in children. J Chemoter 2000; 12: 79-87. Ribič H., Štrumbelj I. Interpretacija antibiograma za zdravnike. Zavod za zdravstveno varstvo Murska Sobota, 2002. Scheinfeld NS, Allan J, Kutler C. Intravenous-to-Oral Switch Therapy. Medscape; Oktober 2007. Pridobljeno 11.12.2009 s spletne strani: http

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Hyperglycaemia Among Nigerian Infants Weighing Less Than 1,500 Grammes at Birth: A Retrospective Assessment of the Clinical Data

infants in a predominantly Hispanic population and related morbidities. J Perinatol 26: 737-741, 2006. 19. Kleinman RE. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook 5th edition. American Academy of Pediatrics, New York, pp. 369-389, 2004. 20. Colley R, Duty VP. Total parenteral nutrition - nursing practice. In: Principles and Practice of Intravenous Therapy. 4th edition. Plumer AL (ed). Little, Brown and Company, Toronto, pp. 389-438, 1987. 21. Von Muhlendahl KE, Herkenkoff H. Long-term course of neonatal diabetes. N Engl J Med 333: 704

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