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Abstract

Even if intraspecific conflict is a well-known behaviour in birds, intraspecific killing among passerines is very rare in the literature. Cases of intraspecific predation among passerines constitute a very small percentage of published reports, and many of the cases are based on circumstantial evidence. In March 2013, we witnessed a group of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) kill a conspecific male adult in the village of Gonsans (France, Doubs department). During the reproductive season three explanations of others studies (lack of food, weak condition and territorial behaviour during) could be relevant in our case. In conclusion, it appears that our observation is a very rare one and the second one for the House Sparrow.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the mean size and age of migrating salmon, Salmo salar L., and sea trout, Salmo trutta L., smolts in three rivers of the Nemunas River drainage area from different climatic sub-regions in Lithuania. Research indicates there were significant differences of migrating fish age and size between stocked and natural smolt populations. In natural populations salmon and sea trout smolts aged 2+ dominated, but up to 82% of all migrating smolts of the stocked population in Siesartis River were aged 1+. The artificially-reared salmon and sea trout smolts in the Siesartis River were significantly larger than wild fish in the 1+ age group of migrants, and, accordingly, they reached smolt size and were ready to migrate earlier. The high density of salmonid parrs in the Siesartis River and intraspecific competition could have also prompted 1+ age group smolts to migrate. It is hypothesized that the phenomenon of early smolt migration in the Siesartis River could have been a local adaptation to the long migration route, or it could have resulted from density-dependent competition caused by imbalanced stocking programs.

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, 23: 2141-2152. Castagneri D., Vacchiano G., Lingua E., Motta R. 2008. Analysis of intraspecific competition in two subalpine Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands in Paneveggio (Trento, Italy). Forest Ecology and Management , 255: 651-659 Connolly J., Wayne P. 1996. Asymmetric competition between plant species. Oecologia , 108: 311-320. Corral Rivas J. J., Álvarez González J. G., Oscar Aguirre, Hernández F. J. 2005. The effect of competition on individual tree basal area growth in mature stands of Pinus cooperi Blanco in Durango (Mexico). European

.L., Skrylnik, Yu.Ye., Zinchenko, O.V., Kochetova, A.I. 2017b.. Seasonal development of the pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus galloprovincialis) in the north-eastern steppe of Ukraine. Forestry and Forest Melioration, 130, 223-230. Meshkova, V.L. 2017c. Evaluation of harm (injuriousness) of stem insects in pine forest. Scientific Bulletin of UNFU, 27 (8), 101-104. DOI: 10.15421/40270816. Pineau, X., Bourguignon, M., Jactel, H., Lieutier, F., Salle, A. 2017. Pyrrhic victory for bark beetles: successful standing tree colonization triggers strong intraspecific competition for

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://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-016-1575-2 Ptasetyo A, Endo R, Takashima Y, Ishiguri F, Tamabe J, Aiso H, Kameyama Y, Ohtsuka K, Ohshima J, Iizuka K, Yokota S (2017) Possibility of tree breeding for wood quality in keyaki(Zelkova serrata). Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding 6: 40-45 (in Japanese with English summary) R Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria . Sakai K, Mukaide H, Tomita K (1968) Intraspecific competition in forest tree. Silvae Genetica 17: 1:5 Takeuchi H, Kurinobu S, Chigira R