Theodora Benedek, Monica Marton Popovici and Dietmar Glogar
This review summarizes the most recent developments in providing advanced supportive measures for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the results obtained using these new therapies in patients with cardiac arrest caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Also detailed are new approaches such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), intra-arrest percutaneous coronary intervention, or the regional models for systems of care aiming to reduce the critical times from cardiac arrest to initiation of ECPR and coronary revascularization.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring as the first manifestation of an acute myocardial infarction is associated with very high mortality rates. As in comatose patients the etiology of cardiac arrest may be unclear, especially in cases without ST-segment elevation on the surface electrocardiogram, the decision to perform or not to perform urgent coronary angiography can have a significant impact on the prognosis of these patients. This review summarises the current knowledge and recommendations for treating patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting with OHCA. New therapeutic measures for the post-resuscitation phase are presented, such as hypothermia or extracardiac life support, together with strategies aiming to restore the coronary flow in the resuscitation phase using intra-arrest percutaneous revascularization performed during resuscitation. The role of regional networks in providing rapid access to the hospital facilities and to a catheterization laboratory for these critical cardiovascular emergencies is described.