M. Magi, L. Guardone, W. Mignone, M. C. Prati and F. Macchioni
increase in the distribution and density of the red fox over the last two decades ( Romig et al ., 1999 ; Eckert et al ., 2000; Vervaeke et al ., 2005 ; Veronesi et al ., 2014 )
Different habitats and diet composition strongly influence the helminth fauna of this wild carnivore ( Barbosa et al ., 2005 ; Eira et al ., 2006 ; Hegglin et al ., 2007) . The red fox is the definitive host of a wide variety of intestinalhelminths of both veterinary and public health concern. The zoonotic species include Echinococcusmultilocularis , the etiological agent of
Umma A. Ibrahim, Sagir G. Ahmed, Modu B. Kagu and Usman A. Abjah
developed countries. Anemia 2011; doi: 10.1155/2011/260380.
7 Osazuwa F, Ayo OM, Imade P. A significant association between intestinalhelminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria. North Am J Med Sci 2011; 3: 30-4. doi: 10.4297/najms.2011.330.
8 Ahmed SG, Ibrahim UA, Ekemu ED. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in anaemic and non-anaemic Nigerian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Niger J Parasitol 2004; 25: 15-20. doi: 10.4314/njpar.v25i1.37703.
9 Ahmed SG
M. Lefkaditis, A. Paştiu, A. Rodi-Buriel, A. Sossidou, A. Panorias, T. Eleftheriadis, V. Cozma and A. Mihalca
 Abu-Madi, M. A., Pal, P., Al-Thani, A., Lewis, J. W. (2008): Descriptive epidemiology of intestinalhelminth parasites from stray cat populations in Qatar. J. Helminthol., 82: 59–68. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X07870830 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X07870830
 Abu-Madi, M. A., Behnke, J. M., Prabhaker, K. S., Alibrahim, R., Lewis, J. W. (2010): Intestinal helminthes of feral cat populations from urban and sub — urban districts of Qatar. Vet Parasitol., 168: 284–292. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.11.027 http
F. Usai, R. Rinnovati, V. Trocchi and L. Stancampiano
Italian hare Lepus corsicanus De Winton, 1898, is a true species living in simpatry with Lepus europaeus in mainland Italy and with Oryctolagus cuniculus in Sicily, where L. europaeus is absent. Up to date, nobody has studied the helminths of this endemic Italian Mammal. Therefore, in order to describe Italian hare gastro-intestinal helminths, gastro-intestinal tract of 29 Italian hares, coming from mainland Italy (#14) and from Sicily (#15) were collected between 1997 and 2009. Twentyfive hares were positive for at least one parasite (86 %). Six parasite species were isolated, 2 cestodes (Cittotaenia pectinata, prevalence 3 %) and Paranoplocephala sp., 3 %) and 4 nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, 86 %, Graphidium strigosum, 14 %, Trichuris sp., 10 % and Teladorsagia circumcincta, 7 %). Both Teladorsagia circumcincta circumcincta and Teladorsagia circumcincta trifurcata morphotypes were identified. Comparison with available data regarding L. europaeus and O. cuniculus in Italy is provided. Being not T. circumcincta and Paranoplocephala sp. typical parasites of leporids, a description of the observed specimens is given.
Jacek Karamon, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Bożena Moskwa, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jolanta Zdybel and Magdalena Włodarczyk
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland), with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.
Material and Methods: Intestines from 53 raccoon dogs and 66 red foxes were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Samples of faeces from 51 red foxes and 50 raccoon dogs were examined with the use of flotation method.
Results: Parasitic helminths were found by SCT in 98.5% of red foxes and 96.2% of raccoon dogs. Both species were infected with: Alaria alata (93.9% and 94.3%, respectively), hookworms (68.2% and 83.0%), Apophallus spp. (7.6% and 15.1%), Mesocestoides spp. (57.6% and 24.5%), Taenia spp. (40.9% and 1.9%), and Toxocara/Toxascaris nematodes (33.3% 15.1%). Echinococcus multilocularis was detected only in red foxes (6.1%), but trematodes Echinostomatidae and nematodes Molineus spp. only in raccoon dogs (18.9% and 41.5%, respectively). Additionally, Capillaria spp. eggs were detected by flotation method in 78.4% of foxes and 20.0% of raccoon dogs.
Conclusion: The study showed a very high percentage of red foxes and raccoon dogs infected with intestinal helminths in the Augustów Primeval Forest. Moreover, dangerous zoonotic parasites also were found, which should be taken into consideration in the assessment of infection risk for humans in this region.
I. Bondarenko, J. Kinčeková, M. Várady, A. Kőnigová, M. Kuchta and G. Koňáková
A modified McMaster method has been used for the diagnosis and estimating helminth egg load in human faecal samples obtained from random consecutive patients in the areas non-endemic for helminth infections (Slovak Republic, North West Russia). Both positive and negative findings were in a 100 % concordance to those obtained with a reference method accepted in clinical diagnostic laboratories (microscopy of the native stool smear). The McMaster method was efficient in detecting nematode eggs in patients’ stool samples with egg load varying from very low (15–60 epg for T. trichiura) to moderate (1650–4500 epg for A. lumbricoides). Therefore, this method may be successfully (and with a better technical feasibility) used for the diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections in non-endemic areas, with further quantitative analysis of the sample when required.
This paper investigates the determined the required log reductions for human intestinal helminth eggs by waste stabilization ponds as simulation as assessing of mitigating health risk to satisfy practice WHO, 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture (≤ 0.1 helminth egg/L) to protect the health of children under 15 years was the development of MATLAB, a computer program based waste stabilization ponds design based on parameter uncertainty and 10,000-trial Monte Carlo simulations were developed for a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds based on 95%-ile of effluent (≤ 0.1 helminth egg/L) which the result in a health-based target. Whereas the influent of the helminth eggs (Nematode) was (932.500 eggs/L). While the treatment provided (100 % reduction/removal) for the overall treatment process with total hydraulic retention time in climatic conditions of Libya it took 36.207 days in the anaerobic pond, facultative pond, first maturation pond and one of the subsequent maturation pond.
A survey of gastrointestinal helminth communities of Podarcis bocagei and Podarcis carbonelli (Sauria: Lacertidae) from NW Portugal was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity and diversity of intestinal parasites in these lizards. A few parasite species were found in both hosts, their prevalences, mean intensities and abundances of infection being low or very low. Low values of richness and abundance of parasite species were also found in the helminth infracommunities of individuals of both host species. These low values of parameters of infection and diversity are discussed and compared between both host species and among other Iberian lacertid lizards.
T. Romig, B. Bilger, A. Dinkel, M. Merli, D. Thoma, R. Will, U. Mackenstedt and R. Lucius
Fox baits containing 50 mg praziquantel were distributed by aircraft in a 3000 km2 area of southwestern Germany from 1995 to 1999. 20 baits / km2 were initially distributed at intervals of six to twelve weeks. Starting from a prebaiting prevalence of 64 % (95 % C.I. 59–69), a level of 15 % (C.I. 10–21) was reached after 18 months. Further decreasing the frequency and discontinuing the bait distribution caused a surge to 55 % (C.I. 49–61) within 36 months. Other cestode species (Taenia spp., Mesocestoides spp.) showed similar responses, while the prevalence of ascarid nematodes did not decline during baiting. New infections of fox cubs with E. multilocularis, but not with other cestodes, drastically decreased after one year. Prevalences of fox helminths in an external control area remained stable. Our data suggest that repeated praziquantel treatment of free ranging foxes is suitable to reduce the prevalence of E. multilocularis in a large area.
I. Jankovská, A. Brožová, Z. Matějů, I. Langrová, D. Lukešová and V. Sloup
covered approximately 6 km 2 with a fox density of 0.9-6 foxes/1km 2 /year; average animal body weight was 5.5 kg (from 2.96 to 8.32 kg).
During necropsy, the small intestine was isolated and wrapped in plastic bags and frozen at -80°C until examination (app. one month) in order to inactivate the infective material. In order to detect intestinalhelminths, a direct detection method was implemented using intestinal scraping or sedimentation techniques (ITS) ( Tackmann et al ., 2006 ).
Helminths were identified according to size and morphology using two microscopes