-specific immune-responsive cells; in turn, intestinal immune responses activated by the normal flora can regulate the structure of the intestinal microecological flora [ 5 ]. GALT is the main site where antigen-presenting cells perform their functions; it is a tissue structure that includes Peyer’s patches, lymphatic fossa, and isolated lymphoid follicles essential for cellular immunity and immune tolerance [ 6 ]. In sterile mice, the development and maturation of lymphoid fossa and isolated lymphoid follicles require the stimulation of the intestinalflora, but Peyer’s patches
Healthy Multifunctional Spectra of Milk Glycoproteins and Their Fragments - a Review Article
The functionalities of glycoprotein lactoferrin (LF) and glycomacropeptide (GMP) were discussed. LF is considered a multifunctional protein. Its absorption in the bowel; immune response; antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties; and protection against microbial infection, were the most widely studied functions to date. Besides, promotion of balanced intestinal flora by preventing growth of harmful bacteria and stimulating bifidus, LF helps to secure a correct balance of the intestinal flora. Although, most of the proposed biological activities of LF are related to the binding of iron, the non-iron related functions have been described as well, such as regulation of iron metabolism, prevention of oxidation and control of cell or tissues damage (result of aging).
Likewise, GMP, which is a carbohydrate-containing peptide formed from chymosin or pepsin digestion of κ-casein, exhibits several useful biological activities, including binding of cholera toxin and E. coli enterotoxins, inhibition of bacterial and viral adhesions, suppression of gastric secretions, promotion of bifidobacterial growth, and modulation of immune responses. GMP contains no aromatic amino acids and is therefore used for phenylketonuria (PKU) suffering patients.
The carbohydratic parts bound to such glycoprotein or glycopeptide, may act as prebiotics in the intestine and colon.
Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honey bees from substances collected from parts of plants, buds and exudates. Due to its waxy nature and mechanical properties, bees use propolis in the construction and repair of their hives for sealing openings and cracks and smoothing out the internal walls and as a protective barrier against external invaders and weathering threats. Bees gather propolis from different plants, in the temperate climate zone mainly from poplar. About 300 compounds such as polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, amino acids, steroids and inorganic compounds have been identified in propolis samples. Several scientific studies have been focused on the biological activities of propolis and its functions as a health supplement in humans. It could have akin function in poultry. This review is focused on the current findings relating to chemical composition, as an antioxidant, on performance, immunity, intestinal flora and haematological parameter in domesticated poultry species (broiler chickens, laying hens, quail and duck).
Barbara Kazuń, Krzysztof Kazuń, Joanna Żylińska and Andrzej K. Siwicki
The presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) favors the stabilization of intestinal flora, facilitates digestion, improves the assimilability of fodder, and has an immunomodulatory effect on the immune system. According to current research, the application of LAB following antibiotic treatment prevents the development of opportunistic bacteria inhabiting the digestive tract. In the study the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains, which can be administered as an alternative to antibiotic treatment in aquaculture, were investigated under in vitro conditions. The strains of L. plantarum were characterized for important properties such as the ability to grow in the presence of 10% fish bile, a tolerance of low pH, and antagonism to pathogens dangerous for fish such as Aeromonas salmonicida and Pseudomonas fluorescens; therefore, they meeting the criteria for strains with probiotic properties. In view of currently increasing resistance to antibiotics and a decrease of their efficiency, probiotic bacteria can serve to support immunity to infections in the future.
Al.C. Moldoveanu, M. Diculescu and Carmen Fierbinţeanu Braticevici
Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic afflictions, characterized by active and remission periods. Inflammation is the most common type of response that the human body uses as a defense mechanism against aggressors from the environment. The frequency and degree of inflammation depends on the size of the affected tissues. The gastrointestinal tract is, by far, the most susceptible tissue to inflammatory responses, because of its constant exposure to various antigenic, mutagenic and toxic factors.
In inflammatory bowel diseases there is a loss of immune tolerance to intestinal flora that is mediated by various substances, including cytokines. Cytokines represent a key signal in the intestinal immune response. Activated dendritic cells and macrophages secrete cytokines that actively intervene in inflammation regulation, in both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. After their secretion by antigen presented cells, cytokines activate and differentiate T cells, stirring up the adaptive immune response.
Cytokines have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. The identification of new cytokines, as well as the changing of the pathogenesis paradigms in inflammatory bowel diseases has been done on animal tests and clinical studies. Thus, there is promising evidence basis for future therapy research based on cytokines, and anti-cytokine antibodies.
Faruk Pehlivanoglu, Hulya Turutoglu, Dilek Ozturk and Hakan Yardimci
The present study aims to characterize ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from healthy cattle and sheep in the Burdur province of Turkey. Fecal samples from a total of 200 cattle and 200 sheep were tested and ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 31 (15.5%) cattle and three (1.5%) sheep samples using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’s combined disk method. Among the ESBL gene classes detected by PCR, blaCTX-M was the most frequent type, followed by the blaTEM and blaSHV families. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates showed co-resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics including aminoglycosides, phenicols, quinolones, folate pathway inhibitors and tetracyclines. The resistance rates were higher in the cattle isolates than in the sheep isolates. Phylogenetic grouping of the E. coli isolates indicated group A (particularly A1) was the predominant phylogenetic group (19/34, 55.9%), followed by groups B1 (9/34, 26.5%) and D (6/34, 17.6%); none of the isolates belonged to group B2. The study shows that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates exist in the intestinal flora of healthy cattle and sheep in the Burdur province of Turkey. This is the first report showing the emergence of CTX-M type ESBL-producing E. coli in sheep farms in Turkey
Tao Lan, Bao-chun Chen, Li-ping Fu, Zhi-juan Li, Xiang-jun Wu and Nai-qiang Cui
Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microflora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microflora may lead to microbial translocation, defined as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal flora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.
Tache Traian, Chirică Răzvan, Radu Marius-Daniel and Rugină Sorin
Clostridium difficile is a microorganism - a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has developed and hyperspecialized the ability to form spores. Outside the host, Clostridium difficile germinates spores which are resistant to unfavorable environment and for an extremely long time period. Clostridium difficile infection frequently occurs on a background of major disturbances in the balance of the normal intestinal flora caused by use for therapeutic purposes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients infected with Clostridium difficile in medical facilities are usually elderly people, immunosuppressed or subjected to an antibiotic medication regimen. Wide-scale community use of antibiotics and proton-pump inhibitors induces favorable conditions for the germination of Clostridium difficile spores in the gastrointestinal tract.
Clostridium difficile biocolonizes many domestic and wild animals. Clostridium difficile is a complex bacterium, capable of developing resistance forms that parasitize the gastrointestinal tract of humans, and also many animals. An important source of the Clostridium difficile infection is represented primarily by antibiotic medication administered in communities without medical recommendation, as well as food.
Beata Trawińska, Jerzy Lechowski, Antoni Polonis and Marta Kowaleczko
The studies involved gilts 6 weeks pre-partum allocated into the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received vitamin C at the dose of 2.5g/100 kg b.w./day. Faeces for analyses were collected for 3- and 6- week period of vitamin C dietary inclusion. The faecal material underwent quantitative and qualitative bacteriological evaluation. The count of Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated. The qualitative examination of these bacteria was made using the micro-plate method API 20E. Feed supplemented with vitamin C contributed to a statistically significant decline of the total bacterial count of Enterobacteriaceae in faeces. The qualitative bacterial analyses showed the presence of E. coli, Providecia sp., Proteus sp., and Salmonella sp. in the control and experimental groups. Enterobacter sp. was recovered only in the control group, while Lactobacillus sp. in the experimental group. The dietary administration of vitamin C significantly decreased the number of the studied bacterial species, except Salmonella rods. No statistically significant differences in the number of most blood morphotic elements following the 6- week supply of vitamin C were found; only the granulocyte count significantly increased, while lymphocyte numbers declined. Ascorbic acid inhibited the growth of pathogenic intestinal flora and reduced the pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria count in the gastrointestinal tract and notably contributed to enhanced growth of beneficial bacteria.
5. Li LJ, Wu ZW, Ma WH, Yu YS, Chen YG. Study on the changes of the intestinalflora in patients with chronic severe hepatitis. J Chin Infect Dis 2001;19:345-347.
6. Chen HS, Liu WJ. The research progress of anti-endotoxin drugs. World Notes Antibio 2002;23:174-177.
7. Shi WX, Yang JZ, Yang SM. Study on the anti-endotoxin agents and the induction of endotoxins by antibacterials. J Chin Antibio 2007;32:454-459.
8. He JC, Shao Y, Zhang B, Shao ZC. Research progress on the treatment of