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Abstract

In this article, the author deals with the foundation, development, results and reasons of disappearance of the most successful sports club in the interwar era; the Jewish swimming and sports club Bar Kochba Bratislava. After the birth of Czechoslovakia, sports in Slovakia could develop on a national basis. Large national minorities had the same possibilities. To eliminate the risk of misusing sports for political purposes, sport representatives decided to organise it on the ethnic principle instead of the regional one. Thanks to this a wide variety of national sports organisations were established, including some Jewish ones. Even though Jews constituted only 2.01% of the population in the interwar period in today’s territory of Slovakia (Bergerová, 1992: 108), they succeeded not only in sports but in other areas of social life as well.

Abstract

This article presents the analysis of thematic, historical and political spectrums of the “Ukrainian” content in the German newspapers and magazines of the interwar period. As a source base for this scientific work the authors analyze the newspaper and magazine journalism of that time, which allows not only to keep certain historical episodes (konstatives), but also (in some way) to reflect the views, needs, intentions, challenges, promises as well as German political and social factors in terms of disillusionment of Ukrainian patriotic forces (performatives). Nazism and Bolshevism skillfully used propaganda to achieve predatory targets, therefore it should be a lesson for the future generations, also the importance of conceptional media in Ukraine and Poland should increase.

ensembles”. This list was supplemented with the names of a few dance, popular song and operetta composers, such as: [Wanda] Vorbond-Dąbrowska, [Fanny] Gordonówna, as well as [Helena] Karasińska, daughter of Adam Karasiński, who wrote the then popular waltz entitled François . This list obviously does not provide us with the complete picture of women-composers’ environment in Poland, not only on the eve of WWII, but in the entire interwar period. What we can glean from the list, though, is just how varied that environment was and how many different trends it involved. A

Abstract

The basis of the connection between analytic philosophy and architecture theory was developed in the interwar period. The results of analytic philosophy – especially the neo-positivism of Vienna Circle – and modern, functionalist architecture theory were utilized in an interdisciplinary approach. The comparison was based on language puzzles, science-based building processes, the method of justification and verification, and designing an artificial language in order to express the theoretical (philosophical) and the practical (architectural) approach as well. The functionality was based on the modern way of architectural thinking that relied on the results of Carnapian neo-positivism. Interpreting modern architecture is possible by referring to the keywords of logical positivism: empiricism, logic, verification, unity of language, and science.

In my paper, I first list the bases of the comparison between the philosophy of the Vienna Circle and the architecture theory of the interwar period – the Bauhaus and Le Corbusier. In the 2nd and 3rd sections, I show the dialectical succession between form and function. After that, I discuss the aesthetic verification of the turn of the century and the scientific justification of the interwar period. I focus on the interwar period with the positivist approach and the theory of the ‘new architecture’. I emphasize the importance of the language of science and the machine paradigm – in contrast to historicism.

Abstract

The bad economic situation for agro-forest farms in Poland during the interwar period was caused by war damage, a global economic crisis, crop failure, indebtedness prior to World War I, and by tribute payments towards rebuilding the country. Although the timber harvest was substantial, farm owners were forced to take loans. In 1938, the debt level of agro-forest farms accounted for 18 per cent of their total value. The average debt level for this period oscillated between 9.8 and 126.0 PLN/ha-1. The assistance programme implemented by the government provided for a reduction in the interest rate of loans, particularly for farms with an area up to 300 ha.

Abstract

The institutionalisation of pedagogy in the Second Polish Republic period – the case of the Department of Pedagogy and Didactics at the University of the Piasts (Wszechnica Piastowska) The Second Polish Republic is a period of the institutionalisation and disciplinarisation of pedagogy. The interwar period is characterised by the institutions, established for the pedagogical education of teachers, and agendas that arise along with them, at Polish universities, aiming at pedagogical education and generation of pedagogical knowledge. The example of such actions was the establishment of the Department of Pedagogy and Didactics at the University of the Piasts (Wszechnica Piastowska). It was due to the efforts of the first directors of the Department – Antoni Danysz, Bogdan Nawroczyński, and Ludwik Jaxa-Bykowski, that the Poznań academic pedagogy had played a significant role in the structures of the University of Poznań, and in the scientific development of Polish pedagogy. Despite it being shut down in 1933, within the continuous cooperation with the Department of Psychology, the Poznań University, gave the opportunity and shaped the future teachers.

122 M A R T Y N A S P E T R I K A S Art History & Criticism / Meno istorija ir kritika 14 ISSN 1822-4555 (Print), ISSN 1822-4547 (Online) https://doi.org/10.2478/mik-2018-0011 Martynas PETRIKAS Department of Screen and Performative Communication, Vilnius University, Vilnius MONOGRAPH BY INA PUKELYTĖ ŽYDŲ TEATRAS TARPUKARIO LIETUVOJE (JEWISH THEATRE IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD) BOOK REVIEW Ina Pukelytė, Žydų teatras tarpukario Lietuvoje. Kaunas: Vytauto Didžiojo Universitetas, 2017, summary in English. There are (at least) two approaches that

Abstract

My study is an analysis of the emergence of the “Golden Dream” narrative in Romania, right after World War I. Along the way, I make some theoretical contributions to cultural trauma studies. ‘Winner’ and ‘loser’ are terms used to define fixed situations. Usually, only the loser (the victim, defeated) might suffer a trauma, while the occurrence of trauma is denied for the winner (the perpetrator, victor). We shall dig a little deeper and wider, demonstrating that Romania, an overall winner of WWI, will face, right after victory, a ‘cultural shock’ which has to be repressed, as part of the “Golden Dream” narrative. Through a detailed, economic, social and political analysis, I’ll be trying to argue that a shattering trauma has engendered in Romanian society; yet another addition to a whole ‘traumatic history’. The ensuing orthodox ethnonationalism takes its root from this trauma. From time-to-time, we will take a comparative glance at the trauma of the loser, particularly when we will be discussing the omissions of an otherwise seamless narrative.

Abstract

The purpose of the article was to present, with regard to Łódź multinational and multi-religious contexts of the 19th and 20th centuries, the type, course, and meaning of widely understood school celebrations, in which children were the main actors. The intention of the author was to answer the key issue of this study: did children, who rehearsed for school celebrations and events and participated in them, play the role of the subject of the educational process or were they a kind of a tool, i.e. the object of the influence of the school, that is to say its owners (e.g. boards of charitable organizations or municipal or church authorities), education authorities, teachers, or carers. To what extent did the organisation of school events result from rituals of the educational institution concerned and to what extent was the need for this kind of “ceremonies” influenced by the local (social and political) environment?

The historical background of the paper is the time before the Great War, the years of 1914--1918, and Poland in the interwar period. Taking the historical and pedagogical aspects referred to above into account, the author tried to present the events with child participants held in institutions run by charitable organisations (the period until 1914); ceremonies related to the promotion of pupils in the first grades of municipal schools to next grades (the years of 1914-1918); and celebrations and ceremonies held in care institutions for girls and boys.

The research is based on archive materials, newspaper articles, and historical and current literature.

Abstract

The article presents the emigration of Polish Jewish community to the individual regions in Africa in the years 1918-1939. It is stated in it that Africa was not really popular among Polish immigrants. Before 1939 only about 4200 people who had Polish citizenship lived on this large continent. Polish Jews occupied an important place among the population.

Relatively the largest colonies of Polish Jews were then in North Africa (Egypt and the Maghreb) and in South Africa. Smaller ones were created in West, Central and East Africa. The wealthiest group of Polish Jews lived in Egypt and South Africa, where they were engaged in trade. In other regions, that group dealt with craft, had small shops or livied on hired labor.

Polish Jews were involved in the development of Polish and of Polish origin association life in Africa. They contributed also to establishing business contacts between Poland and African lands. Individuals received satisfactory material status and a good professional position or were engaged in political activities.