Violeta Mihaela Dincă, Anca Bogdan, Monica Zottu-Z and Teodora Floricel
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The article scrutinizes the referendum as an instrument to join international organizations. It analyzes the interaction of the participants for achieving unanimity and consensus, not differences or attempts to impose a certain opinion. A conclusion is drawn that through direct democracy the citizens take responsibility for the future development of the state.
· von Bogdandy Armin, 2012, ‘Neither an InternationalOrganization Nor A Nation State: The EU as a Supranational Federation’, in Jones Erik, Menon Anand and Weatherill Stephen (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the European Union, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
· von Bogdandy Armin and Bast Jürgen (eds), 2009, Principles of European Constitutional Law, Hart Publishing, Oxford.
· von Bogdandy Armin, Kottmann Matthias, Antpöhler Carlino, Dickschen Johanna, Hentrei Simon and Smrkolj Maja 2012, ‘Reverse Solange
The paper focuses on the notion of disability in the documents of selected international organisations. The social model approach to disability has been implemented since the second half of the 20th century and consequently such terms as ‘invalid’, ‘madman’, ‘dumb’, ‘cripple’, ‘paralytic’, ‘the lame’ or ‘the blind’ were removed from the literature, legal acts, or documents of international organisations. Notions like ‘disability’, ‘disabled person’, or ‘a person with disability’ are considered ‘politically correct’ now. It is worth highlighting however that great emphasis is put to replace the term ‘a disabled person’ with the term ‘a person with a disability or disabilities” as the latter notion does not refer to the person’s characteristics with one adjective only, hence it does not stigmatize him/her either. The trend is reflected in the terminology used in the documents and acts introduced at the international level. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of difficulties with translation into other languages, which is also the Polish case.
The article is focused on the analysis of the cross-cultural competency framework of the NGO managers within international organizations. The results of the qualitative research project demonstrate a consistent pattern of three perceived mandatory competencies for efficient managers: communicative competence, intercultural competence and linguistic competence. The qualitative phenomenological research was conducted in Ukraine and US; the insights of 22 in-depth interviews with managers of the international NGOs reveal vision and perception that US and Ukrainian managers have regarding the required education, skill set and knowledge of the successful international managers.
Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (con)federal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.
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The Development of an Information Society and Electronic Commerce in the European Union in the Context of Selected Documents of the EU and International Organisations
Due to the rapidly growing use of the Internet, the development of electronic commerce (defined by the World Trade Organization as "the production, distribution, marketing, sale or delivery of goods and services by electronic means"1) has become one of the key aspects of today's sustained growth. It influences productivity, facilitates the international movement of goods and services, and stimulates export and import trade. The European Union, as well as many multinational organisations, is working towards the harmonisation of their rules, and to facilitate and streamline this kind of international exchange.
In this article, the author presents selected documents on electronic commerce published by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, the World Trade Organization, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce and the European Union since 1994.