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References 1. Korczewski Z.: An entropy function application within the selection process of diagnostic parameters of marine diesel and gas turbine engines. Polish Maritime Research, 2(65)/2010, Vol.17, p. 29-35. 2. Korczewski Z.: Exhaust gas temperature measurements in diagnostic examination of naval gas turbine engines. Part III. Diagnostic and operating tolerances. Polish Maritime Research, No. 4(71)/2011, Vol.18, p. 49-53. 3. Korczewski Z.: Analysing possible use of the diagnostic model of internal combustion engine piston-crankshaft systems and evaluating

of Power Sources 2011:196(4):2298–2310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.09.119 [10] Travesset-Baro O., Rosas-Casals M., Jover E. Transport energy consumption in mountainous roads. A comparative case study for internal combustion engines and electric vehicles in Andorra. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 2015:34:16–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.09.006 [11] Kosai S., Nakanishi M., Yamasue E. Vehicle energy efficiency evaluation from well-to-wheel lifecycle perspective. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and

References Firkowicz S.: Statistic evaluation of quality and reliability of electron tubes (in Polish). WNT, Warszawa 1963. Girtler J.: a method for evaluating the performance of a marine piston internal combustion engine used as the main engine on a ship during its voyage in different sailing conditions Polish Maritime Research. Vol. 17, iss. 4(67), 2010. Girtler J.: Physical aspect of application and usefulness of semi-Markovian processes for modelling the processes occurring in operational phase of technical objects. Polish Maritime Research. 2004 nr 3

References [1] Cordier, M., et al., Increasing Modern Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency , SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2172. [2] Basshuysen, R., Schäfer, F., Handbuch Verbrennungsmotor, Grundlagen, Komponenten, Systeme, Perspektiven , SAE International 2004. [3] Ferguson, C. R., Internal combustion engines , Applied Thermo-Sciences, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1986. [4] Köhler, E., Verbrennungsmotoren, Motormechanik , Berechnung und Auslegung des Hubkolbenmotors Vieweg Fachbuch, Wiesbaden 2002. [5] Miao, Y., et al., Industrial Processes: Data Reconciliation and

Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of implementation of CHP plants based on internal combustion engines at different industrial companies. The authors have presented general aspects regarding utilization of internal combustion engines for cogeneration. There have been presented different possibilities of classification of internal combustion engines. Further on authors have presented different possibilities for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines, including: supercharging compression ratio increase, advanced heat recuperation for combined production of heat and power. There have also been presented different measures for increasing energy efficiency on site, including measures for CHP plant and internal combustion engines and measures for other auxiliary equipment and measures for technological equipment. In the second part of the paper authors have presented three case studies of utilization of internal combustion engines at a cogeneration plant for different industrial companies: cogeneration plant at a company from pharmaceutical sector, cogeneration plant at a beer production company and cogeneration plant at a company of electrical insulation materials. The results of the analysis led to following conclusions: implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines lead to significant financial savings, implementation of cogeneration solutions based on internal combustion engines can also lead to reducing environmental impact, it ensures higher global energy production efficiency and higher power efficiency compared to National Power System and to separate power and heat generation, it can lead to increased safety in energy supply of the company, it can also increase the reliability of power supply in cases of National Power Grid faults.

Abstract

In this paper, the authors present an introduction to the new method of evaluating the indicator diagram of internal combustion engine. For several years, it was observed that analyses of combustion processes have been hardly changed since they were conducted for the first time. At the moment, the diagrams are plotted more and more precisely owing to the new sensors and digital processors. Despite all of these high technical advantages, which were obviously unavailable in the past, theoretical approach for describing indicator diagram has not changed in significant way. Nowadays, the indicator diagrams are still evaluated very generally and are presented in much too idealistic way as a smooth curve of pressure changes, without any disturbances, which are being detected very easily now. Furthermore, it appears that performance improvements of the IC engines are in need of developing new methods for analysis and evaluation. The Fourier transform is a new way to look at the combustion process in the engines. It is basically a mathematical instrument for analysing different types of signals, which are transformed, from time domain into frequency domain. It enables identifying specific sinusoidal components of arbitrary signals and separates relevant ones from the noise. This allows one to see significant differences in two or more apparently similar signals and detect the crucial parts. If we treat pressure changes in time like a common signal, we can compute Fourier transform and see basic components of the diagram.

temperature measurements in diagnostic examination of naval gas turbine engines. Part III. Diagnostic and operating tolerances. Polish Maritime Research, No. 4(71)/2011, Vol.18, p. 49-53. 8. Korczewski Z.: Analysing possible use of the diagnostic model of piston-crankshaft systems in internal combustion engines and evaluating its practical applicability for controlling rationally the operation of these engines taking into account an expert system (in Polish). Publication within the framework of the research project Nr N509 494638 financed by MNiSW. Gdansk University of

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aeberli K.: New high-economy engines for panama containerships and large tankers, Wartsila Switzerland Ltd, Winterthur, September 2007 2. Brun R.: High-speed diesel engines (in Polish). WKiŁ, Warsaw 1973 3. Gercbach I.B., Kordonski Ch., B.: Reliability models of technical objects (in Polish). WNT, Warsaw 1968 4. Girtler J.: Controlling the process of operation of marine internal combustion engines based on the diagnostic decision-making model (in Polish). ZN AMW, nr 100A, Gdynia 1989 5. Girtler J., Kuszmider S., Plewiński L.: Selected issues of

Abstract

In this paper, a novel fuel-injection mechatronic control method and system for direct injection (DI) internal combustion engines (ICE) is proposed. This method and system is based on the energy saving in a capacitance using DC-DC converter, giving a very fast ON state of the fuel injectors’ electro-magnetic fluidical valves without an application of the initial load current. A fuel-injection controller for the DI ICEs that provides a very short rising time of an electromagnet-winding current in an initial ON state of the fuel-injector’s electromagnetic fluidical valves, which improves a fuel-injection controller reliability and simplify its construction, is presented. Due to a number of advantages of afore -mentioned fuel-injection mechatronic control method and system, it may be utilised for the DI ICEs with fuel injectors dedicated to all types of liquid and/or gas fuels, for example, gasoline, diesel-oil, alkohol, LPG and NPG.

Agriculture, Vol. 7, 24-34. 8. Bocheński C. I., Warsicki K., Bocheńska A. M. (2005), Comparison of process of stream creation and diesel oil and rape oil esters combustion in the research combustion chamber at single - and diphause fuel injection, Journal of KONES Internal Combustion Engines, Vol. 12(3-4), 33-42. 9. Canakci M. (2007), Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel, Bioresour. Technol., 98, 1167-1175. 10. Cisek J., Mruk A. (2012), Characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled by