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The regional occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered pig from Slovakia was studied in the period of 2000–2008, along with the quantitative parameters associated with the establishment of cysts (intensity of infection, fertility, size). From 103 pig livers collected from abattoirs in 35 sites Slovakia as suspected for Echinococcus infection, 63 were positive for cystic echinococcosis, whereas in 40 livers cysticercosis was diagnosed. Fertile cysts with echinococcal protoscoleces were recorded in 25.4 % of positive pigs, with the 8.9 % fertility rate and the intensity of infection reaching value of 5.9 cysts per liver. The average size of fertile cysts was more than three times larger than diameter of sterile cysts (diameters of 4.67 cm vs. 1.37 cm, respectively). No significant differences in relative amounts of fertile and sterile cysts were found among counties (P = 0.15). The annual prevalence of E. granulosus in pigs in 2000–2 008 has ranged from 0.02 % to 0.13 % (average rate 0.08 %), with the decreasing tendency over the period, especially after 2005. The most heavily affected areas with cystic echinococcosis over 2006–2008 were indicated in Prešov (eastern Slovakia, 0.68 % prevalence) and Komárno districts (southwestern Slovakia, 0.26 % prevalence). Obtained data are relevant in designing regional control strategies to suppress the occurrence of disease in livestock and risk for humans to be infected.

and intensity of infection have gradually increased with the maximum values (91.3 % in red deer; 60 % in roe deer) in 1995 ( Rajský et al ., 2002 ). While low intensity of infection was detected in majority of infected animals, increased values were observed in older individuals ( Rajský et al ., 2002 ). In Slovakia, F. magna currently occurs in the entire area of floodplain forests along waterside of the Danube River and in the Danubian islands southward from the Gabcíkovo waterworks. The aim of this study was to summarize numerous data acquired in the 11-year


The article describes occurrence and distribution of Eustrongylides trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the delta of Dnipro River in Mykolaiv and Kherson Region. Study was conducted in 2015–2016. This parasite was found in natural water reservoirs in Mykolaiv and Kherson region in following fish species: Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758), Perca fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758). Ichtyopathological investigation of 346 fishes was conducted. Parasites were observed in abdominal cavity, muscle tissue, wall of gastro-intestinal tract, gonads and hepatopancreas. P. fluviatilis was the most affected species, prevalence of infection was 85.1 %. Less infected were S. lucioperca and E. lucius, with the prevalence of infection 58.1 % and 58.9 % respectively. Mean prevalence of infection of predatory fish in studied reservoirs was 70.5 %. The intensity of infection was the highest in perch (1–14 nematodes per fish). The lowest intensity of infection was found in pike-perch (1–9 nematodes per fish).


The article describes occurrence and distribution of Cryptocotyle trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Region. Study was conducted in 2015-2016. Two trematode species were found in natural waters of these regions: Cryptocotyle cancavum Crepli, 1825 and Cryptocotyle jejuna Nicoll, 1907. Th e latter species has not been previously registered in this region in southern Ukraine. Varying intensity of infection with Cryptocotyle metacercariae was observed in fish of Gobiidae family: Mesogobius batrachocephalus Pallas, 1814, Neogobius melanostomum Pallas, 1814, N. fluviatialis Pallas, 1814. Th e most affected species was N. melanostomum, with the prevalence of infection 59.2 %. Less infected were N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalus, with the prevalence of infection 30.4 % and 17 % respectively. The intensity of infection was the highest in N. melanostomum - 211 metacercariae per fish, followed by N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalu - 124 and 89 metacercariae respectively. Cryptocotyle was the most prevalent in the Dnipro-Buh estuary (cape Adzhigol, Mykolaiv Region) and much less prevalent in the waters of the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Regions. Mean prevalence of infection was 31.4 %.

The article presents the original findings of Paracoenogonimus ovatus (Katsurada,1914) in fish in the Southern Bug and the Inhul rivers in Mykolaiv Region in 2012-2014. The roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), bream (Abramis brama), crucian (Carassius gibelio), rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), pike (Esox lucius), pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were found to be infected with metacercariae of P. ovatus. Metacercariae of P. ovatus are described based on the original material. The highest prevalence of infection was observed in the roach, 82.3 %, the pike was infected in the less degree, with prevalence of 15.3 %. The infection intensity was highest in the roach, up to 247 specimens; that of the pikeperch was the lowest - 17 specimens. The highest occurrence of P. ovatus was observed in the parts of the river Southern Bug in Zhovtnevy, Mykolaiv, Novoodesky Districts, whereas in Voznesenky, Pervomaysky Discticts and in the city of Mykolaiv the occurrence was the lowest. In the area of the river Inhul the parasite was observed mostly in the waters of Bashtansky District in Mykolaiv Region.

presence of red fox feces in the soil of urban and suburban areas can threaten the health of animals and humans, mainly due to the presence of zoonotic parasite eggs (primarily Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara canis ). We examinated the gastrointestinal tracts of 40 red foxes from the above-mentioned monitored area and found 77.5 % (31/40) of them to be infected by intestinal helminths. There were no statistically significant differences (P≥0.05) between male and female red foxes with respect to prevalence and intensity of infection and prevalence of


Complex influence of infection by myxosporeans Myxidium gadi Georgevitsch, 1916; Ceratomyxa merlangi Zaika, 1966 and nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) on the morphophysiological and biochemical parameters of the Black sea whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus (Nordmann, 1840) were studied. Significant decrease of spleenosomatic index and increase of hepatosomatic index in fish with average and high intensity of infection were found. The dependence of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities on intensity of infection was observed. Increase of superoxidismutase, catalase, glutation-S-transferase activities in fish with average and high intensity of infection and decrease of peroxidase activity in specimens with average intensity of infection were shown.


The aims of this research were: 1) to determine the helminth parasite fauna of seventy two Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) individuals inhabiting poultry farms in the Pampean region of Argentina; 2) to examine the relationship between parasitism and individual characteristics of the hosts, and 3) to analyze the associations among helminths. The study was carried out in twenty-four poultry farms from autumn 2000 to winter 2001. Nematodes were found in the intestine or caecum rectum of the 74 % of rats and cestodes were found along all the intestine of the 28 % of rats. Heterakis spumosa (Travassos 1914) was a central species, whereas Syphacia muris, Yamaguti 1941, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos 1914) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi 1819) were satellite species. Helminths do not affect rat survival and growth of rats. Rats parasitized with H. spumosa and H. diminuta were larger and older than non-parasitized rats. The intensity of infection with H. spumosa significantly increased with rat age. Rats parasitized with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Syphacia muris did not differ in size and age with respect to non-parasitized ones. The mean intensity of infections per host was 33.74, 74.28, higher than 200, and 3.10 for H. spumosa, S. muris, N. brasiliensis and H. diminuta, respectively. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa was higher in summer than in the other seasons, while the higher mean intensity of infection with N. brasiliensis and S. muris occurred in autumn. Infections with Heterakis spumosa and Syphacia muris, and with Syphacia muris and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were independent; while Heterakis spumosa and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were negatively associated.


The study aimed to describe morphological and morphometric characteristics of species representing the genera Diplostomum Nordmann, 1832 and Ornithodiplostomum Dubois, 1936, originating from naturally infected birds in the Czech Republic and in Poland, and to compare their species richness and the intensity of infection in their avian hosts. Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932, D. parviventosum Dubois, 1932, D. phoxini (Faust, 1918), D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928), and Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Schulman, 1952) were found in the gossander (Mergus merganser). D. parviventosum was found in the velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca). D. pungitii Shigin, 1965 was found in the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and in the long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). D. spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819) was found in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Morphology and morphometry of those Diplostomum species from the Czech Republic and from Poland were not analyzed before. The morphological and morphometric description of the adult form of O. scardinii presented in this study has been the first such description of a specimen obtained from a naturally infected bird. The highest intensity of infection was observed in the gossander (D. pusillum and D. mergi). Study results provided new data on the occurrence of the Diplostomum and O. scardinii trematodes in the Czech Republic and in Poland.


Until now studies in Brazil of the pathological action of Contracaecum sp. larvae in Hoplias malabaricus have been rare. The aim of the present study was to analyze and describe histopathological changes in the stomach of H. malabaricus caused by different intensities of infection by larvae of Contracaecum sp., and the hematological effects of such infection. The mean intensity of infection by L3 larvae of Contracaecum sp. correlated positively with Hematocrit percentage (Hct%) and correlated negatively with mean corpuscular volume (MCV). These findings are possibly related to the passage of larvae from the stomach to the mesentery, potentially due to hemorrhaging t. Fish with high infection intensity had larvae of Contracaecum sp in the submucosal of the stomach, which caused destruction of Type I and Type III collagen (finer and more delicate collagen fibers which do not form beams and are permeated by fundamental substances) around the parasite. Microscopic analysis showed that crypts were arranged regularly throughout the stomach mucosal, varying in number, size and depth, depending on the region of the stomach.