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Insulin and the Brain

R eferences 1. Ghasemi R, Haeri A, Dargahi L, Mohamed Z, Ahmadiani A . Insulin in the brain: sources, localization and functions. Mol Neurobiol 47: 145-171, 2013. 2. Kleinridders A, Ferris HA, Cai W, Kahn CR . Insulin action in the brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function. Diabetes 63: 2232-2243, 2014. 3. Yin F, Boveris A, Cadenas E . Mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox signaling in brain aging and neurodegeneration. Antioxid, Redox Signal 20: 353-371, 2014. 4. Camandola S, Mattson MP . Brain metabolism in health

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The design of an insulin pump - preliminary requirements (a technical note)

References Accu-Chek Polska www.accu-chek.pl Cukrzyca i pompa insulinowa www.pompiarze.pl/ Diabetes Mall - Comparison of Current Pumps www.diabetesnet.com/diabetes_technology/insulin_pump_models.php Insulin pump en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin_pump Krzysztof Lewenstein, Maciej Grabowski, Maciej Chojnacki: A family of computer controlled infusion pumps - technology transfer from university to the small industry. Eng Mechanics

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Insulin Resistance in Liver Diseases

References Kimball SR, Vary TC, Jefferson LS. Regulation of protein synthesis by insulin. Annu Rev Physiol. 1994;56:321-48. Randazzo PA, Morey VA, Polishook AK, Jarett L. Characterization of the growth of murine fibroblasts that express human insulin receptors. I. The effect of insulin in the absence of other growth factors. Exp Cell Res. 1990;190(1):25-30. Taub R, Roy A, Dieter R, Koontz J. Insulin as a growth factor in rat hepatoma cells. Stimulation of proto-oncogene expression

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Insulin Receptor and its Relationship with Different Forms of Insulin Resistance

References [1] ADJEI AA, HIDALGO M. Intracellular signal transduction pathway proteins as targets for cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 5386-5403. [2] AL-GAZALI LI, KHALIL M, DEVADAS K. A syndrome of insulin resistance resembling leprechaunism in five sibs of consanguineous parents. J Med Genet 1993; 30: 470-475. [3] ARAKI E, SHIMADA F, UZAWA H, MORI M, EBINA Y. Characterization of the promoter region of the human insulin receptor gene. Evidence for promoter activity. J Biol Chem 1987; 262(33): 16186

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A Case of Possible Hypersensitivity Reactions to Human Insulin

R eferences 1. Fernandez L, Duque S, Montalban C, Bartolome B . Allergy to human insulin. Allergy 58: 1317, 2003. 2. Messaad D, Outtas O, Demoly P . Hypersensitivity to insulin. Presse Med 33(9 Pt 1): 631-638, 2004. 3. Wonders J, Eekhoff EM, Heine R, Bruynzeel DP, Rustemeyer T . Insulin allergy: background, diagnosis and treatment. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 149: 2783-2788, 2005. 4. DeShazo RD, Boehm TM, Kumar D, Galloway JA, Dvorak HF . Dermal hypersensitivity reactions to insulin: correlations of three patterns to their histopathology

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Surrogate Measures of Insulin Resistance in Middle-aged Non-diabetic Subjects

References 1. Ausk KJ, Boyko EJ, Ioannou GN. Insulin resistance predicts mortality in nondiabetic individuals in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1179e85 2. Facchini FS, Hua N, Abbasi F, Reaven GM. Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3574-8. 3. McLaughlin TL, Reaven GM. Beyond type 2 diabetes: the need for a clinically useful way to identify insulin resistance. Am J Med. 2003;114:501e2 4. Raynaud E, Perez-Martin A, Brun JF, Benhaddad AA

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Insulin Resistance (IR) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Identifying Predictors of Insulin Resistance and Establishing a Correlation Between Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

References 1. Jianping Ye, Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity, Front Med. 2013 Mar; 7(1): 14–24. 2. John R. Petrie, Shinichiro Ueda, et.al, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Production and Insulin Sensitivity A Physiological Link With Implications for Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease, Circulation. 1996;93:1331-1333 3. Jonathan D. Schofield, Yifen Liu et.al, Diabetes Dyslipidemia, Diabetes Ther. 2016 Jun; 7(2): 203–219. 4. Mulnier HE, Seaman HE, Raleigh VS, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Colhoun HM, Lawrenson RA, de Vries CS, Risk of myocardial

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A Male with Extreme Subcutaneous Insulin Resistance: A Case Report

R eferences 1. Ballani P, Tran MT, Navar MD, Davidson MB. Clinical experience with U-500 regular insulin in obese, markedly insulin resistant Type-2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 29: 2504-2505, 2006. 2. Mantzoros CS, Flier JS. Insulin resistance: the clinical spectrum. Adv Endocrinol Metab 6: 193–232, 1995. 3. Oo YH, Karam JG, Resta CA. Extreme insulin resistance in a patient with diabetes ketoacidosis and acute myocardial infarction. Case Rep Endocrinol 2013:520904, 2013. 4. Ovalle F. Clinical approach to the patient with

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Insulin Initiation in Type 2 Diabetes – Why, When and How?

R eferences 1. Festa A, Williams K, D’Agostino R Jr, Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM. The natural course of beta-cell function in nondiabetic and diabetic individuals: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 55: 1114-1120, 2006. 2. Funakoshi S, Fujimoto S, Hamasaki A et al. Analysis of factors influencing pancreatic beta-cell function in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: association with body mass index and duration of diabetic exposure. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 82: 353-358, 2008. 3. Saydah SH, Fradkin J, Cowie CC. Poor

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LDL and HDL lipoprotein subfractions in multiple sclerosis patients with decreased insulin sensitivity

References Asztalos BF, Cupples LA, Demissie S, Horvath KV, Cox CE, Batista MC, Schaefer EJ. High-density lipoprotein sub-population profile and coronary heart disease prevalence in male participants of the Framingham Offspring Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24, 2181–2187, 2004. Boyer JF, Gourraud PA, Cantagrel A, Davignon JL, Constantin A. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis. Joint Bone Spine 78, 179–183, 2011. Cederholm J, Wibell L. Insulin release and peripheral sensitivity at the oral

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