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R eferences 1. Zhao X, Han Q, Liu Y, Sun C, Gang X, Wang G . The Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acid Related Metabolomic Signature and Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review. J Diabetes Res 2016. 2. Guillausseau PJ, Meas T, Virally M, Laloi-Michelin M, Médeau V, Kevorkian JP . Abnormalities in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab 34(2): 43-8. 2008 3. Yabe D, Seino Y . Two incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP: comparison of their actions in insulin secretion and β cell preservation. Progress in biophysics and molecular biology

-5. 26. Vazquez G, Boland R, de Boland A. Modulation by 1,25(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP pathway in rat and chick myoblasts. BBA-mol cell res. 1995; 1269(1): 91–7. 27. Nilas L, Christiansen C. Treatment with vitamin D or its analogues does not change body weight or blood glucose level in postmenopausal women. Int J Obes. 1984; 8(5): 407-11. 28. Boucher BJ, Mannan N, Noonan K, et al. Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia. 1995; 38(10): 1239-45. 29. von

, Kress C, Bach JP, Babinet C, Yaniv M. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 inactivation results in hepatic dysfunction, phenylketonuria, and renal Fanconi syndrome. Cell 84, 575–585, 1996. Pontoglio M, Prie D, Cheret C, Doyen A, Leroy C, Froguel P, Velho G, Yaniv M, Friedlander G. HNF1α controls renal glucose reabsorption in mouse and man. EMBO Rep 1, 359–365, 2000. Pontoglio M, Sreenan S, Roe M, Pugh W, Ostrega D, Doyen A, Pick AJ, Baldwin A, Velho G, Froguel P, Levisetti M, Bonner-Weir S, Bell GI, Yaniv M, Polonsky KS. Defective insulin secretion in hepatocyte nuclear factor

-stimulated expression of Txnip is mediated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein, p300, and histone H4 acetylation in pancreatic beta cells. J Biol Chem 284, 16898-16905, 2009. Christensen DP, Dahllof M, Lundh M, Rasmussen DN, Nielsen MD, Billestrup N, Grunnet LG, Mandrup-Poulsen T. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition as a novel treatment for diabetes mellitus. Mol Med 17, 378-390, 2011. Fu J, Zhang Q, Woods CG, Zheng H, Yang B, Qu W, Andersen ME, Pi J. Divergent eff ects of sulforaphane on basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in b-cells: role of reactive

. Pesticides Poisoning: One-year report of Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center. Prog Med Res 2003;1:1--9. Rahimi R, Abdollahi M. A review on the mechanisms involved in hyperglycemia induced by organophosphorus. Pest Biochem Physiol 2007;88:115--21. Panahi P, Vosough-Ghanbari S, Pournourmohammadi S, Ostad SN, Nikfar S, Minaie B, Abdollahi M. Stimulatory effects of malathion on key enzymes activities of insulin secretion in Langerhans islets, glutamate dehydrogenase and glucokinase. Toxicol Mech Methods 2006;16:161--7. Pournourmohammadi S, Ostad SN, Azizi E, Ghahremani

response to glucose was found to be delayed in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and patients with hypothyroidism showed an increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in insulin degradation [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ]. The incretin effect is defined as the difference in insulin secretion due to orally given glucose compared to that due to intravenous glucose, which would increase the plasma glucose level by the same amount [ 8 ]. This effect related to the intestine is associated with humoral or neural factors that are known as incretin and potentiate insulin

Engl J Med 315: 215-219, 1986. 7. Ball GD, Huang TT, Gower BA et al. Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and beta-cell function during puberty. J Pediatr 148: 16-22, 2006. 8. EppensMC, Craig ME, Cucumano J et al. Prevalence of diabetes complications in adolescents with type 2 compared with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29: 1300-1306, 2006. 9. Maahs DM, Snively BM, Bell RA et al. Higher prevalence of elevated albumin excretion in youth with type 2 than type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Diabetes Care 30: 2593

alpha cells. Nat. Med.. 17: 1481-489. Ezcurra M., Reimann F., Gribble F.M, Emery E. (2013). Molecular mechanisms of incretin hormone secretion. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol.. 13: 922-927. Furrer D.. Kaufmann K. Tschuor F., Reusch C.E., Lutz TA. (2010). The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor NVP-DPP728 reduces plasma glucagon concentration in cats. Vet. J.. 183: 355-357. Gilor C.,Graves TK,Gilor S.,Ridge TK,Rick M(2011 a).TheGLP-l mimeticexenatide potentiates insulin secretion in healthy cats. Domest. Anim Endocrinol., 41: 42-49. Gilor C., Graves T.K. Gilor S.. Ridge T

plus the sulfonylurea receptor, Science 270 (1995) 1166–1170; DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5239.1166. 49. S. Isomoto, C. Kondo, M. Yamada, S. Matsumoto, O. Higashiguchi, Y. Horio, Y. Matsuzawa and Y. Kurachi, A novel sulfonylurea receptor forms with BIR (Kir6.2) a smooth muscle type ATP-sensitive K + channel, J. Biol. Chem . 271 (1996) 24321–24324; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.40.24321. 50. P. Proks, F. Reimann, N. Green, F. Gribble and F. Ashcroft, Sulfonylurea stimulation of insulin secretion, Diabetes 51 (2002) S368–S376; DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.51.2007.S368. 51. F. M

increase L cells and insulin secretion [ 20 ] . The authors showed that the increase in GLP-1 was associated with an increase in peptide YY (PYY) and insulin with a reduction in food intake of a previously selected favorite meal. GLP-1 is rapidly broken down by Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). DPP4 inhibitors have been introduced to treat diabetes. Osto et al . [ 21 ] have shown that in rats that Roux en Y gastric bypass down-regulates DPP-4 Bariatric Surgery And Type 2 Diabetes Reversal of type 2 diabetes can occur rapidly with weight reduction [ 22 ] . Weight