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–901. Levine, Glenn S. (2003). Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes about target language use, first language use, and anxiety: Report of a questionnaire study. The Modern Language Journal 87(3): 343–364. Levine, Glenn S. (2011). Code Choice in the Language Classroom . Bristol – Buffalo – Toronto: Multilingual Matters. Lewis, Gwyn, Bryn Jones, Colin Baker (2012). Translanguaging: Developing its conceptualisation and contextualisation. Educational Research and Evaluation 18: 1–16. Lin, Angel M. Y. (1990). Teaching in two tongues: Language alternation in foreign

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-102. Guerrero, L. K., & Miller, T. (1998). Associations between nonverbal behaviors and initial impressions of instructor competence and course content in videotaped distance education courses. Communication Education, 47 (1), 30-42. Hammadou, J., & Bernhardt, E. (1987). On being and becoming a foreign language teacher. Theory into Practice, 26 , 301-306. Harry, B., & Klingner, J. (2006). Why are there so many minority students in special education? Understanding race and disability in schools . New York City: Teachers College Press, Columbia University. Haskvitz, A. (2007

Abstract

In recent years, many international students from different parts of the world have been studying at Turkish universities, which creates a multicultural educational setting. Due to the multicultural educational setting, English has become the most widely used language for exchanging and sharing knowledge, therefore many international universities in Turkey put a great emphasis on English language education and offer English preparatory courses to students. In order to succeed at better language education, universities employ native English instructors to provide a richer language experience with cultural components embedded in language content. In this qualitative case study, cultural reflections of native English instructors at a Turkish university were investigated. Individual and focus group interviews were data sources for the study. Findings indicated that cultural responsiveness was considered to be constructed through time, and a necessity of orientation process was emphasized. However, the native instructors’ presumptions cause intolerance and underestimation of the host culture. In addition, educational issues and students’ misbehaviors, such as cheating and calling their instructors by their first name, were attributed to cultural background of the students.

Abstract

The first and most crucial step towards developing a sustainable curriculum for instructors teaching English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) is a needs analysis. Therefore, the main aim of conducting this study was to investigate the in-service needs of language instructors and content specialists teaching ESAP and to spot the differences between the needs of these two groups in order to provide them with systematic treatments in ESAP teacher training programs. This mixed method study was designed on a qualitative-quantitative survey basis using a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and an observation checklist. The analysis of the data collected from 50 content specialists and 50 language instructors completing the questionnaires reveals that there is a significant difference between the in-service needs of these two groups, that is, language instructors desire more to be trained in an in-service ESAP teaching training program in terms of professional, procedural and personal needs. Furthermore, the results of the data obtained from the semi-structured interview and the observation of 20 of the above-mentioned instructors (i.e., 10 content specialists and 10 language instructors) indicate that language instructors have more difficulty selecting suitable materials, suffer more from low income, attitudinal difficulties and backwash effect compared to their counterparts teaching ESAP courses. It can be inferred that the results of the present study can sufficiently help the researchers to embark on an in-service teacher training program both for ESAP content specialists and language instructors based on their specific needs in the ESAP context.

., & Thorne, S. L. (2013). Web 2.0, synthetic immersive environments, and mobile resources for language education. Calico Journal, 25(3), 528-546. 40. Tekinarslan, E. (2008). Blogs: A qualitative investigation into an instructor and undergraduate students’ experiences. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(4), 402-412. 41. University of Cincinnati (2013). University of Cincinnati Social Media Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.uc.edu/content/dam/uc/ucomm/docs/UC-Social-Media-Strategy.pdf 42. Yang, S. H. (2009). Using blogs to enhance critical reflection and

Abstract

Foreign language anxiety (FLA) is perceived as a negative factor influencing learners’ language achievement. Targeting Chinese overseas students, this paper investigates whether communicative confidence, fear of negative evaluation, attitude towards using English in workshops and trait anxiety are related to Chinese students’ speaking anxiety. The present study also aims to examine how students perceive their speaking anxiety and coping strategies both from teachers and students. The questionnaire and the semi-structured interview were adopted for data collection. 80 TESOL students at the University of Edinburgh were invited to complete the questionnaires, with 6 students participating in the interviews to get deeper insights into Chinese students’ perception of their speaking anxiety. Research findings revealed that communicative confidence, fear of negative evaluation, attitude towards using English in workshops and traits anxiety were strongly related to Chinese students’ speaking anxiety. In the interviews, 6 respondents commented that instructors’ characteristics, such as patience and humor, and their preparation before class can alleviate their speaking anxiety in workshops. It is hoped that the current study can contribute to a deeper understanding of Chinese students’ speaking anxiety in UK universities.

Abstract

Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1) to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2) to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3) to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4) to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1) undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB), Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU), Vietnam and 2) English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize student learning. Finally, this research could establish better understanding between language learning natures of people from Thailand and Vietnam.

Abstract

The article examines the nature and importance of using aesthetic and therapeutic concept and educational logotherapy, in particular, for creating a special emotionally comfortable socioeducational environment for primary education The author has represented inteipretation of foreign scholars' views (J. Bugental, V. Frankl, A. Maslow, R. May, J. Moreno, C. Rogers et al) on such terms as “communication ”, “aesthetotherapy ”, “educational logotherapy” etc. An attempt has been made to analyze the social coTitent of pedagogical activity in the context of using logotherapy in primary school based on an agogical paradigm. In the scope of the article, the specific of using the therapeutic metaphor in the educational environment of primary' school has been represented as well as the basic stages of its implementation have been determined. These stages are the following: description of the storyline, persuasion and binding. The author has defined the role of the “living metaphors” in organization of the therapeutic interaction between the teacher and primary' schoolchildren. Particular attention has been paid to formation of the humanistic competency among primary schoolchildren; this competency is to be based on their understanding of the following philosophical and pedagogical categories: a norm (as a means and a results of pupils' social activity), freedom (as a mean and a result of individual self-expression among primary schoolchildren) and happiness (as an individual self-expression among primaryr schoolchildren). The author has assessed the role of deflection method and paradoxical intention for the social development of the pupil and further formation of the individual. Additional attention has been paid to determination of the socioeducational and psychological and pedagogical potential of such leading method in logotherapy as “The Socratic dialogue” (or “The Socratic circle”): as well have been highlighted the main stages of its implementation: consent (search for what pupil may agree), doubt (an expression of doubts towards weak arguments of interlocutor) and arguments (the teacher must convey' one’s opinion, without any resistance from the child): have been represented different various algorithms of its realization: the method of “aquarium”, “panel method” and “questioning technique”.

Abstract

The works of art are priceless going by the quality of works exhibited by an artist. The artist tends to describe a particular scene near to the natural object in question. In the 15th and 16th centuries , France relayed on the impressionists who graduated from workshops and schools of apprentice in the likes of Gauguin, Monet, Manet, Degas, Renoir Cezanne, Delacroix and others to capture scenes of the Parisian country side that existed long age. The artist and his works remain indispensible to the existing societies. This form of art venture is not new to Nigeria where schools and workshops of apprenticeship exist. In Nigeria, the existing heritage and traditions if not for the artists will not be translated into art by the artists particularly painters like Dale, Oshinowo, Oguntokun, Emokpae, El-Dragg and others. The existence of workshops and schools of learning art have trained more artists to keep the aesthetical values of art. The society would be no doubt an unpleasant community without a touch of the arts. The artists who on daily bases create by painting, sculpting to make the environment a pleasurable place remain an important factor in the society.

Abstract

A common problem with using different statistical packages for the same data and method is the risk of getting dissimilar results. While the reasons behind this outcome are often known and accepted, the negative consequences might be significant. In a teaching environment, usually involving toy models, with no practical implications, only a reputation risk is at stake. Nevertheless, students should be aware of such incongruities, their causes and possible solutions. Starting from these considerations, our paper addresses the differences that arise between R and WarpPLS while applying the Partial Least Squares Path Modelling (PLS-PM) method. To this end we estimate a PLS-PM model for analysing health-positioning data, compare the results and explain how the two statistical packages differ and complement each other in an attempt to derive the best fit for the data.