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Evaluating the performance of alternative blended learning designs using DEA

Abstract

The extensive demand for blended learning programs imposes the problem of selecting the most appropriate instructional design from amongst a variety of alternatives that may be feasible for a particular program. The decision-making process should consider a number of qualitative factors such as the satisfaction of learning needs, educational efficiency, ease of implementation and total financial cost. In this paper, we propose that Bates’ (1995) e-learning instructional design model ACTIONS, which describes seven qualitative dimensions pertinent to selecting a design, can be used in conjunction with Data Envelopment Analysis to provide a distinct decision-making framework to aid administrators in determining which blended learning programs are the most effective. The first stage in the analysis is to explain which ACTIONS dimensions can be regarded as inputs and which can be treated as outputs for the sake of the decision process, with all seven dimensions being measurable by ordinal scores assessing the expected performance of alternative designs. In the second stage of analysis, we use Data Envelopment Analysis with ordinal data to obtain an overall expected performance index that is able to discriminate the designs most efficient and most suitable for implementation. The methodology is illustrated by an example. Discussion and Conclusions follow.

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Forging new pathways for research on language learning motivation

Abstract

Research on motivation in the field of applied linguistics seeks to better understand how and why learners become involved in learning activities and maintain their efforts in this regard. Dörnyei provided a seminal model drawing essentially from cognitive and social psychology (Dörnyei, 2001). In the wake of his reflection, and after investigating motivation in a range of academic contexts, we are now able to present our own model, which is dynamic, weighted, and polytomic (Raby, 2007). After presenting cognitive ergonomics as a new pathway for research in second language acquisition, we shall present the results of our investigations in foreign language learning motivation in technologically enhanced contexts, outlining major methodological difficulties pertaining to this sort of this grounded research.

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Transforming the Classroom into a Reflective Community: A Blended Learning Instructional Approach

understanding. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Hands-on Science (pp. 103-108). Crete: University of Crete. Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M. J., Pratt, J., & ID2 Research Group. (1996). Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology , 36 (5), 5-7. Merrill, M. D. (1997). Instructional strategies that teach. CBT Solutions, Nov./Dec. , 1-11. Meyer, W. J. (1977). The effects of education as an institution. American Journal of Sociology , 83 (1), 55-77. Mezirow, J. (1991

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Examining Learners’ Interaction in an Open Online Course Through the Community of Inquiry Framework

Abstract

Open online courses are becoming more prevalent at local level and for and professional development objectives. Proper instructional design combined with use of online tools can promote learner interaction in online environments. Using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, this study aimed at examining learners’ interaction and their perceptions of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence in an open online course offered for professional development in three Swedish universities. The course was free and open to all, attracting participants from all over the world. In order to understand the online interactions of the course, three presences of CoI were matched to three types of interaction (Moore, 1989). Data were collected through a slightly revised version of the CoI instrument and open-ended questions were added. Survey results showed that participants had high perceptions of the three presences in the course. Results also yielded significant relationships between teaching presence and cognitive presence, as well as social presence and cognitive presence. The findings suggest that deploying a set of online tools combined with appropriate pedagogical approaches in designing open online courses could foster learner interaction especially learner-content interaction and cognitive presence.

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The Relationship Between Quality of Student Contribution in Learning Activities and their Overall Performances in an Online Course

Abstract

In this research we studied the correlation between the level of students’ online participation and their overall performances. We examined in this study, the participation level in different learning activities assigned to two large cohorts of learners, and compared them with their final grades at the end of the year. We defined the quality of their participation in the online course as being classified into the level of learning activities in which they participated. Learning activities were grouped into four levels which were identified namely at the knowledge, understanding, critical thinking skills and practical competencies. The findings revealed that participation in higher-order online learning activities, that is the higher ability to show critical skills and practical competencies, resulted in better grades of the learners in the module. However, the results also highlighted that overall students had a tendency to score more marks in the knowledge category as the activities required lower order cognitive skills. It was further observed that low performers demonstrated a tendency to obtain lower marks in all the four grouping levels and vice-versa for high performers. Two key elements can be concluded from the findings. The first aspect is about instructional design of such online courses where there is a need for the inclusion of learning activities targeted at the development of different types of skills, and second is the distribution and weighting given to these categories. The recommendation is that for first year students, a greater weighting of marks toward knowledge level activities will generally encourage good performances, and this could be gradually reviewed when they move on to level 2 onwards in their studies.

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Problems Affecting Successful Implementation of Blended Learning in Higher Education - The Teacher Perspective

Abstract

An increased use of blended learning environments in higher education has been an emerging trend in the 21st century. Sometimes the definition of blended learning has been so broad that it makes it hard to find any learning environment in higher education that would not be included. Many research studies have been reporting the pros and cons of blended learning from the university perspective and the learner perspective. There are less studies on the teacher view of blended learning environments. This study had the aim to explore, analyse and discuss teachers’ perceived problems and barriers to a successful implementation of blended learning at university level. The used research strategy was a qualitative cross-sectional study where data has been collected with semistructured interviews. Six teachers that all are subject matter experts and instructional designers for courses on computer science were interviewed. In a computer assisted thematic analysis found codes and keywords was grouped together to create themes. Four themes or problematic areas were found, and that they combined could give an explanation to what teachers experience as problems when implementing blended learning environments. First theme is documentation and support, where teachers find the scarcity of documentation in their virtual learning environment a problem for implementing extension modules. Second theme is introduction and training, where teachers find it problematic that they rarely get a proper introduction or further training on the use of tools and modules. Third theme is the time aspect, teachers suffer from the lack of time to implement blended learning thoroughly in their courses. Last found theme is didactics, where teachers do not feel that they have the required knowledge or skills to apply the appropriate instructional design for blended learning environments.

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Course Curricular Design and Development of the M.Sc. Programme in the Field of Ict in Education for Sustainable Development

Falmer Press. Habermas, J. (1971). Knowledge and human interests. London: Heinemann. Hannafin, M., Land, S., & Oliver, K. (1999). Open learning environments: Foundations, methods and models. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models, Volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory (pp. 115-140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hasselbring, T. S., & Moore, P. R. (1996). Developing mathematical literacy through the use of contextualized learning environments. Journal of Computing in

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Teaching and Learning English at Grammar School Supported by Mobile Touch Technologies

. Smith, P. and T. Ragan. ( 1999). Instructional design. Toronto : John Wiley & Sons. Tony Lai, H-Y. (2015). What Demotivates English Learners in the Classroom? The International Journal ofHumanities Education, pp. 13-25, 20 1 5 . Available at: http://www.ischolar.in/index.php/IJHECG/article/view/57669. Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (Grammar Schools). (2007). [online ]. Praha: VYzkumny listav pedagogicicy v Praze. [ cit. 20 15-08-25]. Available at: http://www.vuppraha.cz/wp-content/uploads/2009I12/RVPG-2007

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Content development approaches in e-learning lessons

learning styles (AEHS-LS): Implementation and evaluation. International Journal of Library and Information Science, 3(1), 15-28. Omer, A. H. (2015). Is Bite Sized Learning the Future of eLearning?. Received from https://elearningindustry.com/bite-sized-learning-future-of-elearning Pappas, C., (2017), 9 Microlearning Techniques To Use In Instructional Design, Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/microlearning-techniques-use-instructional-design Sharples, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I., Milrad, M., & Vavoula, G. (2009

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Working college students’ profile Case Study: Faculty of Engineering Sibiu, Romania

learning styles (AEHS-LS): Implementation and evaluation. International Journal of Library and Information Science, 3(1), 15-28. Omer, A. H. (2015). Is Bite Sized Learning the Future of eLearning?. Received from https://elearningindustry.com/bite-sized-learning-future-of-elearning Pappas, C., (2017), 9 Microlearning Techniques To Use In Instructional Design, Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/microlearning-techniques-use-instructional-design Sharples, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I., Milrad, M., & Vavoula, G. (2009

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