Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is widely used as a popular beverage and dietary supplement that can significantly reduce the risk of many diseases. Despite the widespread use of green tea, the data regarding the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of standardized green tea extract (GTE) containing 61% catechins and 0.1% caffeine on the expression level of rat CYP genes and the corresponding transcription factors expression by realtime PCR. The findings showed that GTE resulted in a significant decrease of CYP2C6 expression level by 68% (p<0.001). In case of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2, the mRNA levels were also reduced by extract but in a lesser degree compared to CYP2C6. Simultaneously the significant increase in the mRNA level of CAR, RXR and GR factors was observed by 54% (p<0.05), 79% (p<0.001) and 23% (p<0.05), respectively after 10 days of green tea extract administration. In addition, there was noted a small increase of CYP1A1 expression level by 21% (p>0.05) was noted. No statistically significant differences were observed for CYP1A2 and CYP2D1/2. In the same study we observed an increase in amount of ARNT gene transcript by 27% (p<0.05) in the long-term use. However, green tea extract showed the ability to stimulate HNF-1α both after 3 and 10 days of treatment by 30% (p<0.05) and 80% (p<0.001), respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the concentration of HNF-4α cDNA. These results suggest that GTE may change the expression of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) and may participate in clinically significant interactions with drugs metabolized by these enzymes.
Application of Fenton's Reagent in the Textile Wastewater Treatment Under Industrial Conditions
Application of reactive dyes is very popular in textile industry as these dyestuffs are characterized by good fastness properties. Constapel et al in 2009 estimated the production of this type of dyes for over 140,000 Mg/year. The reactive dyes are mostly (50%) employed for coloration of cellulosic fibers, however they can also be applied on wool and nylon. Unfortunately, they possess a low degree of fixation (50÷90%), since the functional groups also bond to water, creating hydrolysis and the excess of dyes applied cause a colored pollution of aqueous environment. Moreover, dyeing process requires the use of: electrolytes in the form of aqueous solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 in the concentration up to 100 g/dm3, alkaline environment (pH > 10) and textile auxiliary agents (including detergents). Therefore, the wastewater generated during the reactive dyeing processes is characterized by high salinity, pH value and color, and due to low value of the BOD5/COD ratio are nonbiodegradable. The successful methods of textile wastewater treatment could be Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), amongst which the Fenton reagent seems to be most promising as it is the cheapest and easy in use. Based on the newest literature survey it was found that many successful tests with Fenton reaction were performed mainly in decolorization. However, not enough attention was devoted to decolorization of real industrial wastewater containing dyes, detergents and salts NaCl, or Na2SO4. The experiments carried out in a laboratory scale were focused on the impact of NaCl and textile auxiliary agent (liquid dispersing and sequestering agent) on an inhibition of decolorization process by Fenton's reagent. The objects of the investigation were synthetic mixtures simulating the composition of real textile wastewater as well as the real industrial wastewater generated in the reactive dyeing. The inhibition of the Fenton decolorization in the presence of NaCl and liquid dispersing and sequestering agent was demonstrated. Additional experiments using pulse radiolysis were carried out in order to confirm the inhibition of chloride in the decolorization process.
The effects of five organomercury compounds (methylmercuric chloride, phenylmercuric acetate, phenylmercuric borate, phenylmercuric citrate and diphenylmercury) on photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach chloroplasts were investigated. The IC50 values of organomercury compounds related to PET inhibition in spinach chloroplasts varied in the range from 468 mmol dm-3 to 942 mmol dm-3 and were approximately by one order higher than the corresponding value determined for HgCl2 applied also in DMSO solution (IC50 = 58 mmol dm-3). Due to extremely low aqueous solubility of diphenylmercury, the corresponding IC50 value could not be determined. Using EPR spectroscopy as probable sites of action of organomercury compounds in photosynthetic apparatus ferredoxin on the acceptor side of PS 1 and the quinone electron acceptors QA or QB on the reducing side of PS 2 were suggested.
Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in spawn of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) affected by ulcerative dermal necrosis
The objective of the present study was to investigate the importance of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the defense against lipid and protein oxidation in spawn from female brown trout, Salmo trutta m. trutta L. affected by ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN). UDN induced increased lipid and protein oxidation levels. The current results show that UDN infection led to oxidative stress with the inhibition of antioxidant defense mechanisms. The inhibition of glutathione defense system activity might be responsible for this failure in cellular antioxidant defenses. UDN induces irreversible changes in pro- and antioxidative function which effected decreased spawn survival as well as reductions in spawning efficiency.
The research aimed to use chemical, geochemical, and ecotoxicity indices to assess the heavy metals content in soils with different degrees of exposure to human pressure. The research was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska (Little Poland) province. All metal contents exceeded geochemical background levels. The highest values of the Igeo index were found for cadmium and were 10.05 (grasslands), 9.31 (forest), and 5.54 (arable lands), indicating extreme soil pollution (class 6) with this metal. Mean integrated pollution index (IPI) values, depending on the kind of use, amounted to 3.4 for arable lands, 4.9 for forests, and 6.6 for grasslands. These values are indicative of a high level of soil pollution in arable lands and an extremely high level of soil pollution in grasslands and forests. Depending on the type of soil use, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was from -33 to 59% (arable lands), from -48 to 78% (grasslands), and from 0 to 88% (forest). Significantly the highest toxicity was found in soils collected from forest grounds.
., Cichocki M.: Inhibicja aktywności proteasomu, jako nowa strategia w terapii i chemioprewencji nowotworów. Postępy Hig. Med. Dośw., 2013; 67: 90-106. 17. Miller Z., Ao L., Kim K.B., Lee W.: Inhibitors of the immunoproteasome: current status and future directions. Curr. Pharm. Des.,2013; 19: 4140-4151. 18. Glickman M.H., Ciechanover A.: The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway: destruction for the sake of construction. Physiol. Rev., 2002; 82: 373-428. 19. Murata S., Takahama Y., Tanaka K.: Thymoproteasome: probable role in generating positively selecting peptides
Somatic cell cloning efficiency is determined by many factors. One of the most important factors is the structure-functional quality of nuclear donor cells. Morphologic criteria that have been used to date for qualitative evaluation of somatic cells may be insufficient for practical application in the cloning. Biochemical and biophysical changes that are one of the earliest symptoms in the transduction of apoptotic signal may be not reflected in the morphologic changes of somatic cells. For this reason, adult cutaneous or foetal fibroblast cells that, in our experiments, provided the source of genomic DNA for the cloning procedure had been previously analysed for biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations with the use of live-DNA (YO-PRO-1) and plasma membrane (Annexin V-eGFP) fluorescent markers. In Groups IA and IB, the generation of nucleartransferred (NT) embryos using non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved adult cutaneous fibroblast cells yielded the morula and blastocyst formation rates of 125/231 (54.1%) and 68/231 (29.4%) or 99/237 (41.8%) and 43/237 (18.1%), respectively. In Groups IIA and IIB, the frequencies of embryos reconstituted with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic contact-inhibited or serum-starved foetal fibroblast cell nuclei that reached the morula and blastocyst stages were 171/245 (69.8%) and 97/245 (39.6%) or 132/227 (58.1%) and 63/227 (27.8%), respectively. In conclusion, contact inhibition of migration and proliferative activity among the subpopulations of adult dermal fibroblast cells and foetal fibroblast cells resulted in considerably higher morula and blastocyst formation rates of in vitro cultured cloned pig embryos compared to serum starvation of either type of fibroblast cell line. Moreover, irrespective of the methods applied to artificially synchronize the mitotic cycle of nuclear donor cells at the G0/G1 phases, developmental abilities to reach the morula/blastocyst stages were significantly higher for porcine NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic foetal fibroblast cells than those for NT embryos that had been reconstructed with non-apoptotic/non-necrotic adult dermal fibroblast cells. To our knowledge, the generation of cloned pig embryos using abattoir-derived oocytes receiving cell nuclei descended from contact-inhibited or serum-deprived somatic cells undergoing comprehensive vital diagnostics for the absence of biochemical and biophysical proapoptotic alterations within their plasmalemmas has not been reported so far.