This Paper addresses the right to informed consent regarding euthanasia using international conventions and, to a lesser extent, national laws and policies. Specifically, The United States, Belgium and the Netherlands will be examined. The Paper specifically discusses legal capacity, the right to consent and the right to information. Three stories are used to argue the importance of implementing effective safeguards for these rights and notes that these safeguards are necessary regardless of whether or not euthanasia is legalized in a state. This Paper also argues that patients should not be offered euthanasia for mental illnesses. The ethical debate surrounding whether euthanasia should be permitted generally is not discussed.
Mohsen Koushan, Akbar Pejhan, Nematullah Shomoossi and Azam Shomoossi
Publication ethics has always been a major concern of chief editors and members of editorial boards of journals. Therefore, the current study intends to investigate ethical issues in sticking to publication ethics in major medical journals in Iran.
This descriptive analytical study was conducted on Iranian medical journals approved as “scientific research journals” published from 2011 to 2012; the sample included 109 articles from 102 journals published in Persian. For data gathering, a checklist was developed, and completed through careful scrutiny of the articles and contact with authors. Ethical misconducts were recorded and summarized to compute the misconduct cases.
Ethical misconducts included lack of the ethics committee approval (81.7%), unstated informed consent (45%), authors with insufficient contribution (46.8%), dispute on the order of authors (84.4%), honor authors (8.3%), ghost authors (6.4%), salami publishing (10.1%), concurrent submission (4.6%), missing acknowledgements (49.5%) and not mentioning the financial support providers (56.9%).
The results indicated that some ethical considerations are ignored in publishing medical articles. Therefore, both journals and authors need to take action to avoid misconducts.
J. Glasa, H. Glasová, M. Glasová and T. Krčméryová
Ethical issues in clinical trials in children
Clinical trials (CTs) in children involve much methodological specificity that are reflected in the ethical issues related to them, as well as in the evaluation of ethical acceptability of the given protocol by an ethics committee. A child in comparison to an adult exhibits numerous patho/physiological differences that are in addition characterized by the quick changes during the child's growth and development. Nowadays, there are no doubts about the necessity of conducting specific CTs in children that are not possible to perform in adults. Despite children are not able to give legally valid informed consent and it is necessary to obtain consent from the child's parents, or from the legal representative, it is also necessary, before including the child into the trial, to obtain his/her appropriate agreement (assent) with participation. It is a must always to fully respect the requirements of minimization of pain, discomfort, fear, and separation from the parents especially from the mother. Special ethical issues are connected with CTs conducted in neonatal period. On the part of the professional public, producers of medicinal drugs, as well as from the positions of the European institutions, considerable attention is being paid to the area of CTs in children. It is reflected in numerous scientific researches, and professional and legislative activities. In the Slovak Republic, the area of biomedical research, including CTs, in children and minors is covered by up-to-date, comprehensive legislation. It ensures not only the maximal protection of the child or minor taking part in biomedical research or CT, but it also provides sufficient level of legal certainty to the sponsors and investigators of biomedical research projects/CTs.
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Bates, N.A. 2005. “Development and Testing of InformedConsent Questions to Link Survey Data with Administrative Records.” In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, May 12-15, 2005. 3786-3793, Miami Beach, FL. Available at: http:// www
The investigators behind the first gene therapy trial with adenoassociated virus 8 (AAV8) Factor IX appointed a patient ombudsperson to help ensure participants were able to give truly informed consent. The experiences and challenges of the ombudsperson, who met with the first six UK-based patients, are described. It was stressed to potential participants that altruism, rather than any expectation of clinical benefit, should be the primary motivation to taking part. At the same time a sober assessment of the potential risks to their safety needed to be made.
Introduction. Direct coercion is a part of medical intervention in which the patient’s autonomy as a basic human right is limited. In clinical practice, there are situations in which the use of coercion is indeed necessary to protect the patient and his/her environment against the effects of growing aggression. A very important element of action in such cases is to ensure the safety of both the patient through professional care, and of the personel executing the coercive measure.
Aim. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the legal scope and applicability of coercive measures in nursing practice.
Method. The exegesis of a legal text was used, which allows to present the legal conditions and rules of conduct in case of using direct coercion in psychiatric institutions and non-psychiatric units.
Conclusions. Regardless of the type of institution, the decision to use direct coercion should be carefully considered in terms of both the patient’s good and safety. This is a unique operation. It should be done in accordance with legal guidelines in this regard, what significantly determines the employees’ safety.
Jonathan Gessendorfer, Jonas Beste, Jörg Drechsler and Joseph W. Sakshaug
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da Silva, M.E.M., C.M. Coeli, M. Ventura, M. Palacios, M.M.F. Magnanini, T.M.C.R. Camargo and K.R. Camargo. 2012. “InformedConsent for Record Linkage: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Medical Ethics 38(10): 639 – 642. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics
Magdalena Fundowicz, Miguel Macia, Susanna Marin, Marta Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Ewelina Konstanty, Ignaci Modolel, Julian Malicki and Ferran Guedea
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Danica Marković, Tatjana Jevtović-Stoimenov, Vladan Ćosić, Biljana Stošić, Vesna Dinić, Bojana Marković-Živković and Radmilo J. Janković
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