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.E.(2016). Electricity Consumptionin Lesotho: The Role of Financial Development, Industrialisation and Urbanisation, Journal of International Business and Economics, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-12. 70. Shahbaz, M. and Lean, H. H. (2012). Does Financial Development increase Energy Consumption? The Role of Industrialization and Urbanization in Tanzania, Energy Policy, Vol. 40, pp. 473-479. 71. Statistics Botswana.(2016). Electricity Generation & Distribution; Stats Brief, First Quarter 2016, 2016/2. Available at online at http://www.cso.gov.bw/images/elec-distributionf.pdf 72

Development induced Impoverishment: The Case of the Karrayu Oromo of the Upper Awash Valley. Addis Ababa University. Gezmu A.B. 2013. The human impacts of flower farm development in the Ethiopian Rift Valley region. University College Cork. Kurantin N. 2012. Indigenous Knowledge, Industrialization and Resource Management in the face of Globalization. doi: 10.7763/IPEDR. 2012. V54. 48.MA. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Synthesis. Washington DC, Island Press. Posluschny-Treuner M. 2012. International Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in

Abstract

This paper aims at identifying the direction for more sustainable development of the use of concrete in road infrastructure in an industrialised context.

The increase in the global mean temperature is one of the most severe challenges today. The concrete industry is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gases, most attributable to cement production. However, concrete is one of the most important building materials in the world and indispensable for the societal development in countries at all development stages. Thus, the concrete industry needs to take measures for reducing emissions.

This paper investigates possible directions for the development of the concrete industry, to reduce climatic impact and accommodate positive societal growth. The investigation is carried out as a SWOT analysis, focusing on three terms dominating the present discussion on any development within the construction industry; sustainability, industrialisation and digitalisation. The result is a thorough discussion and a set of recommendations for the direction of future research and innovation on sustainable use of concrete in the construction of road infrastructure. The major opportunities and threats are summarised in the conclusions, and future research to be carried out in two of the authors’ PhD-projects are described.

Abstract

In the last 30 years the global supply chains and containerization transformed the world of production and stretched it across the globe. With the exodus of Process and Assembly (P&A) segment of industrial production from the developed countries, the “global north” not only lost the production capacity itself, but more importantly, the know-how in making that is a basis of industrial culture.

The neoliberal attitudes in industrial production were the main force behind slow but persistent abandonment of the automotive industry in Detroit, or closing down of the coal and iron industry in the Ruhr region in Germany. Contemporary urban renewal strategies of industrial areas rely on injection of tourism based on design, popular art, cultural and leisure activities, like the Emscher Landschaftspark in Ruhr region, Germany. However, tourism-based redevelopment is economically questionable in small industrial towns. For such areas we need to envision alternative agencies that industrial past and industrial production can offer. One of the most underrated aspects of industrial production is the know-how imbedded in the P&A segment of industrial process. We argue for the industrial production know-how as a relevant part of the new innovation economy of small towns and of the local culture. This paper will trace the capacity of industrial production for culture-making by referring to production-innovation models described in regional geography. Firstly the paper identifies the P&A know-how worth reshoring. Secondly, it describes two models of neo-industrialization in order to thirdly identify a new hybrid type of a regional model and its culture.

(Statistical data - in Turkish) 2010, Istanbul: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Bayrampaşa (TEA). Karakuyu, M., 2008: Türkiye’de Sanayi Faaliyetlerinin Gelişmesi, Yapısı ve Dağılışı (The industrialization process of Hadımköy; factors of development, structures and problems - in Turkish). In: Marmara Geographical Review , No. 18, pp. 21-49. Mutluer, M., 1995: Gelişimi, Yapısı ve Sorunlarıyla Denizli Sanayi (Development, structure and problems of Denizli industrial sector - in Turkish), Izmir: Ege Üniv. Basımevi . Özerkmen, N., 1994: Türkiye’de Küçük Sanayinin Yapısı ve Bugünkü

dezindustrializacji (pp. 161–179). Warszawa, Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH w Warszawie. LEBOUTTE, R. (2009): A space of European de-industrialisation in the late of twentieth century: Nord/Pas-de Calais, Wallonia and the Ruhrgebiet. European Review of History: Revue europeene d’histoire (Special Issue: Transnational Spaces in History), 16(5): 755–770. LEVER, W. F. (1991): Deindustrialisation and the Reality of the Post-industrial City. Urban Studies, 28(6): 983–999. LUX, G. (2009): Divergent patterns of adaptation among Central European Old Industrial Regions. European Spatial and

: The World Bank. Frobel, F., Heinrichs, J. and Kreye, O., 1981: The new international division of labour: structural unemployment in industrialised countries and industrialisation in developing countries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gopalkrishnan, S., 2007: In the name of growth: the politics and economics of special economic zones in India, Study prepared for Council for Social Development, New Delhi. Government of India, 1999: Press Release, Ministry of Commerce and Industries, New Delhi, Available online at: http

–476. Popelka, P., Popelková, R. & Mulková M. (2016). Black or green land? Industrialisation and Landscape Changes of the Ostrava-karviná Mining District in the 19th and 20th Century. Ostrava: FF OU. Rodan, K. (2008). Dějiny zemědělství v Rakouském Slezsku v letech 1848–1914 (základní vývojové tendence) .Ostrava: FF OU. Rühl, J., Gristina, L., La Mantia, T., Novara, A. & Pasta S. (2015). Afforestation and Reforestation: The Sicilian Case Study. In R. Valentini & F. Miglietta (Eds.), The Greenhouse Gas Balance of Italy (pp. 173–184). Environmental Science and Engineering

industrialization period at the turn of the 20 th century. Most scholars agree that regional specialization and national integration were not dichotomous phenomena at that time, and instead emphasize that increasing regional specialization depended on concomitant processes of intra- and inter-regional integration ( Gregory 1990 ). Some previous research, however, does not clarify how—and through whom—these two processes were accomplished; in this context, the role of human agencies, which linked production with markets and distribution in practice, is critical, because the

1 Introduction Industrial towns are rarely the focus of geographic research. This is mainly because the first decade of the 21st century was marked by the rise of the digital and media economy, or the new “post-industrial economy” ( Flew, 2010 ). Celebration of the services-based “new economy” was a result of the de-industrialisation of cities and regions in the Global North that led policy-makers and urban researchers to a desperate search for the new post-industrial future ( Miles, 2005 ). Some authors noted that the reduction of “smoke-stack industries” will