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1 Introduction Both labor relations and research in this field have a long history. These relations contemporary frequently obtain the form of industrial relations and are connected with the industrial revolution, and hence started in the second half of the 18th century, while the scientific study of these relations developed in the early years of the 20th century, initially in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Kaufman described that “the first event in the birth of industrial relations as a field of study took place in 1912 – that year President Thaft established a

5 Literatur Afonso, Alexandre. 2013. Social Concertation in Times of Austerity. European Integration and the Politics of Labour Market Reforms in Austria and Switzerland. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Baumgärtner, Alex. 2013. Industrial Relations in der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft. Baden-Baden: Nomos, Bern: Stämpfli. BIGA. 1973. Bundesamt für Industrie, Gewerbe und Arbeit: Stand der Mitbestimmung in der Schweiz. Die Volkswirtschaft, Januar: 3–6. Bundesrat. 1973. Botschaft des Bundesrates an die Bundesversammlung zum Entwurf eines

:// . Cao, D. 2007. Translating Law . Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD. Collins, J. M. 2018. HR Management in the Forensic Science Laboratory: A 21st Century Approach to Effective Crime Lab Leadership . London: Elsevier. De Mooij, M. 2014. Global Marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes . Sage: Los Angeles. Dunn, S. 1990. “Root Metaphor in the Old and New Industrial Relations.” British Journal of Industrial Relations 28 (1): 1–32. Employers Association Forum. 2018. “Moonlighting Employees.” Accessed 10 January 2019. https

social sciences. What is distinctive about his, and the other national culture ‘gurus’, use of dimensions, is the representations of these concepts as bi-polar, and the particular quantification and comparative ranking attributed to them. We have chosen to evaluate the predictive validity of this claim as Hofstede has repeatedly asserted the causal and predictive capability of his definition and country ranking of this dimension on the degree of conflict or consensus in industrial relations (in a range of countries including Ireland). Hofstede defines ‘masculinity

References Dunlop J. T. (1958), Industrial Relations Systems, New York: Holt Dyrektywa Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady z dnia 11 marca 2002 r. ustanawiająca podstawowe struktury informowania i konsultacji wśród pracowników we Wspólnocie Europejskiej, (2002), Dyrektywa Rady 2002/14/WE, Official Journal of the European Communities, L. 80/29 Dyrektywa Rady dotycząca tworzenia europejskich rad zakładowych lub procedur informowania i prowadzenia konsultacji wśród pracowników w przedsiębiorstwach o zasięgu wspólnotowym lub grupach przedsiębiorstw o zasięgu

Uniwersitatis Wratislaviensis. Prawo LXXV, No. 413. Jarzyński I. (1988). Komisje zakładowe a pracownicze współzarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem państwowym, Częstochowa: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej w Częstochowie. Jończyk J. (1983). Zbiorowe prawo pracy, Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Keller B. (2002). The European company statute: employee involvement – and Beyond, Industrial Relations Journal, No. 33 (5). Sowiński R. (1990), Samorząd załogi w zarządzaniu przedsiębiorstwami państwowymi, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza

and Social Partners in Keeping Older Workers in the Labour Market”, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 24. Eurostat (2015), “People in the EU: who are we and how do we live?”, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 25. Fernández Rodríguez, C. J., Ibáñez Rojo, R., Martínez Lucio, M. (2016), “Austerity and collective bargaining in Spain: The political and dysfunctional nature of neoliberal deregulation”, European Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 22, No. 3


Influence the intensity of industrial relations on the innovative activity. Case of Lubuskie voivodeship in 2008-2010 The main objective of the study was an attempt to search for the conditions affect the intensity of supply chains for enterprises innovative activity within the regional industrial system, and consequently determine the directions for the model of regional system of innovation, taking into account the specificities of Lubuskie Region. The study was based on a questionnaire on a group of 545 companies from Silesia. The study used probity modeling. This method is an effective research tool for large, but the static tests in which the dependent variable has a qualitative character.


The main aims of this article are: a presentation of the theoretical framework for the analysis of the social pacts policy (taking into consideration that social pacts are phenomena which are very difficult to clearly define) and the presentation of the practice of this policy in chosen European countries (including three cases of “using” social pacts for the shaping of public policy, taking into consideration the fact that the form and content of social pacts vary from country to country). Social pacts are very special kinds of agreements between the representatives of the state and the interest groups. They can include various issues of social and economic policies, but they can also be used for solving economic difficulties and sustaining progress, including the development of the state. Social Pacts Policy is useful for a weak state and interest groups, which as a result of it can have an influence on public policy. Although, its application is not a facile process of agreement between the state and the social partners, it can have various forms and can include different goals of social and economic policies. Similarly, the range, institutionalisation and length of social pacts are not the same in all countries. Moreover, as the article indicates it refers to the economic, cultural and social circumstances, which can also cause the disappearance of the social pacts mechanism.


Corporate social responsibility (CSR) implies the responsibility of companies for sustainable management in economic, ecological and social terms. The majority of CSR works in science and research were written primarily with the focus on ethics (moral vs. market economy), bearer of responsibility (state vs. companies) and management (e.g. best practice, manuals). This article comes from the perspective of a stakeholder group that is constantly mentioned but receive insufficient attention: unions. Research indicated early on that unions leaned back in the European CSR-debate since its beginning 2001. Based on the case of German unions, the author will analyse their motivation by studying their statements. The systematic literature review provides the basis for his qualitative content analysis of reasonable motives. The results show the unions encountering a complex environment with diverse interests, in which it is difficult to position themselves. Furthermore CSR requirements placed on companies were considered, by economy, to be set very high. Although CSR is not driven by legal regulations, it unfolds quasi-binding rules. For those reasons, it is not surprising that unions were sceptical and restrictive. With its analysis of a defensive CSR strategy, the study contributes to progress in the field of engagement in international debates. The author deals in a theoretical-conceptual way with the existing research results in this field, invalidates them and presents his own attempt with explanation. His explanatory approach extends the existing explanatory patterns by a new perspective for the problem described.