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References van Strien RT, Koopman LP, Kerkhof M, Spithoven J, de Jongste JC, Gerristen J, Neijens HJ, Aalberse RC, Smit HA, Brunekreef B. Mite and pet allergen levels in homes of children born to allergic and nonallergic parents: The PIAMA study. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(Suppl 11):693-8. Platts-Mills TAE, Vervloet D, Thomas WR, Aalberse RC, Chapman MD. Indoor allergens and asthma. Report of the Third International Workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:S1-24. Lederer BP, Belanger K, Triche E, Holford T, Gold DR, Kim Y, Jankun T, Ren P, McSharry J

. Environ Int 2010;36:8-14. 24. Arbes SJ, Sever M, Mehta J, Collette N, Thomas B, Zeldin DC. Exposure to indoor allergens in day-care facilities: Results from 2 North Carolina counties. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:133-9. 25. Nam HS, Siebers R, Lee SH, Park JS, Kim YB, Choi YJ, Lee SH, Crane J. House dust mite allergens in domestic homes in Cheonan, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2008;46:187-9. 26. Adhikari A, Lewis JS, Reponen T, DeGrasse EC, Grimsley LF, Chew GL, Iossifova Y, Grinshpun SA. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1a†’3)-I˛-D-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens

References Cohn RD, Arbes SJ Jr, Jaramillo R, Reid LH, Zeldin DC. National prevalence and exposure risk for cockroach allergen in U. S. Households. Environ Health Perspect 2006;11: 522-6. Macan J, Varnai VM, Maloča I, Kanceljak-Macan B. Increasing trend in atopy markers prevalence in a Croatian adult population between 1985-1999. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:1756-63. Gold DR. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108(Suppl 4):643-51. Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Burge HA, Weiss ST, Gold DR. Exposure to cockroach

References Wang DY. Risk factors of allergic rhinitis: genetic or environmental? Ther Clin Risk Manag 2005;1:115-23. Gold DR. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108(Suppl 4):643-51. Salo PM, Arbes SJ, Crockett PW, Thorne PS, Cohn RD, Zeldin DC. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and its relationship to asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:678-84. Platts-Mills TA, Vervloet D, Thomas WR, Aalberse RC, Chapman MD. Indoor allergens and asthma: report of the Third International Workshop. J

Environ Med 2006;13:341-4. Salo PM, Sever ML, Zeldin DC. Indoor allergens in school and day care environments. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;124:185-94. Tranter DC. Indoor allergens in settled school dust: a review of findings and significant factors. Clin Exp Allergy 2005;35:126-36. Macan J. Senzibilizacija dišnog sustava i biološke karakteristike prašinskih grinja u općem i radnom okolišu [Sensitization of the respiratory system and biological characteristics of dust mites in general and occupational environment, in Croatian]. [PhD thesis]. Zagreb: School of Medicine

assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2001;(11):231-52. 25. Arbes SJ, Sever M, Mentha J, Collette N, Thomas B, Zeldin DC. Exposure to indoor allergens in daycare facilities: results from 2 North Carolinacounties . J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;(116):133-9.

Abstract

The CD14 receptor is expressed on the surfaces of monocytes, macrophages, and, to a lesser extent, of activated granulocytes and B lymphocytes (mCD14). It also exists in soluble form in the serum (sCD14), in which it binds microbial compounds and indoor allergens. The objectives of this study were to see whether serum sCD14 concentrations could be used as a marker of atopic disorders and to estimate the effects of environmental factors (tobacco smoke exposure, childhood residence in urban or rural areas, and having a pet) on sCD14 and IgE values. Mass fraction of sCD14 and total IgE were determined in the sera of atopic (N=53) and non-atopic (N=35) participants using the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Exposure to pets and environmental tobacco smoke was estimated based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire (ISAAC). Median sCD14 concentration was significantly lower in atopic than in non-atopic girls (3.49 vs. 3.83 μg mL-1; p<0.010). The number of smokers at home positively correlated with the sCD14 level in atopics, and urban atopics had significantly lower sCD14 levels than rural atopics (3.47 vs. 3.92 μg mL-1, p=0.028). Median total IgE concentration was significantly lower in atopic pet owners than in atopics with no pets (161 vs. 252 kIU L-1; p=0.021). In conclusion, while sex and environmental factors might be involved in sCD14 expression, particularly in atopics, we found no correlation between sCD14 and total IgE concentrations. The usefulness of sCD14 as a marker of atopic disorders should be investigated further, particularly in relation to the severity of allergic disorders.

References 1. Ferrari, M., Olivieri, M., Lampronti, G., Biasin, C. & Lo Cascio, V. (1995). Effect of three different doses of a slow-release theophylline formulation on bronchial response to inhaled methacholine in asthmatic patients. Respiration . 62 (2), 95-100. 2. Kennedy, S.M. & Contreras, G.R. (1993). Measurement of nonspecific bronchial responsiveness in epidemiologic studies: methacholine challenge testing in the field. Occup Med . 8 (2), 303-321. 3. Platts-Mills, T.A. (1994). How environment affects patients with allergic disease: indoor allergens and

GP, Rose G, Platt-Mills TAE. Epidemiology of acute asthma: IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens as a risk factor for emergency room visits. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:875-82. Sporik R, Holgate ST, Platts-Mills TAE, Cogswell JJ. Exposure to house-dust mite allergen (Der p I) and the development of asthma in childhood. N Eng J Med 1990;323:502-7. Gelber LE, Seltzer L, Bouzoukis JK, Pollart SM, Chapman MD, Platts-Mills TAE. Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) as risk factors for asthma among patients

prolamins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:963-5. doi: 10.1016/S0091-6749(96)80071-6 10. Custovic C, Taggart S, Francis H, Chapman M, Woodcock A. Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:64-72. doi: 10.1016/S0091-6749(96)70227-0 11. Platts-Mills T, Vervloet D, Thomas W, Aalberse R, Chapman M. Indoor allergens and asthma: report of the Third International Workshop J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(6 Pt 1):S1-S24. doi: 10.1016/S0091-6749(97)70292-6 12. Cullinan P, MacNeill S, Harris J, Moffat S, White C, Mills P