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Temperature Sensor Feasibility Study of Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Heating Efficiency Maintenance in High-Rise Apartment Buildings


Cities are responsible for 60%-80% of the world’s energy use and for approximately the same percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. The existing multi-apartment buildings of multifamily housing sector are often energy inefficient, and the heating system does not ensure optimization of heat distribution of individual apartments. Heat distribution, heating system balancing, heat loss detection and calculation, individual heat energy accounting are difficult tasks to accomplish. This article deals with the temperature monitoring system designed to retrieve temperature differences necessary for overall building heat monitoring and individual apartment monitoring. The sensor testing case study process and its measurements are analysed.

Open access
Heat Cost Allocation in Multi-Apartment Buildings: A Literature Review


Literature review aims at examining various scientific articles on the accounting methods of individual heat consumption and heat cost allocation.

Nowadays, accounting methods of heat consumption and heat cost allocation in multi-apartment buildings are a topical issue. Heat and water supply is one of the key services provided to residential buildings and their residents. Residents appreciate solutions that allow them consume as much heat as they need and are able to pay, but on condition that the calculation methodology is understandable and easy to perceive.

Directive 2010/31/EU on the Energy Performance of Buildings adopted by the European Parliament and the Council (Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2010) stipulates that owners or te-nants of buildings shall be provided with the information on energy efficiency measures, their goals and objectives, cost effective ways to improve the energy performance of a particular building and, where appropriate, in the case of available financial instruments to improve the energy performance of a particular building.

The aim of the research is to perform literature analysis using topical articles on the accounting methods of individual heat consumption and heat cost allocation, which are published in the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases, by analysing and comparing the published results.

Open access