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Abstract

Recycling of crop residues is essential to sustain soil fertility and crop production. Despite the positive effect of straw incorporation, the slow decomposition of that organic substance is a serious issue. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of winter wheat straws with different degrees of stem solidness on the rate of decomposition and soil properties. An incubation experiment lasting 425 days was carried out in controlled conditions. To perform analyses, soil samples were collected after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 119, 147, 175, 203, 231, 259, 313, 341, 369, 397 and 425 days of incubation. The addition of two types of winter wheat straw with different degree of stem solidness into the sandy soil differentiated the experimental treatments. The results demonstrate that straw mineralization was a relatively slow process and did not depend on the degree of filling of the stem by pith. Multivariate functional principal component analysis (MFPC) gave proof of significant variation between the control soil and the soil incubated with the straws. The first functional principal component describes 48.53% and the second 18.55%, of the variability of soil properties. Organic carbon, mineral nitrogen and sum of bases impact on the first functional principal component, whereas, magnesium, sum of bases and total nitrogen impact on the second functional principal component.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the growth and development of sea trout, Salmo trutta L., fry obtained from frozen, thawed semen after the fish had been released into the wild and were feeding there. The semen was cryopreserved with either methanol (MeOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Fresh eggs were collected and fertilized with the thawed semen. The control was eggs fertilized with fresh semen that had been kept on ice. The eggs were incubated and reared in a closed recirculating system. The fertilized eggs were counted for visible eye pigment. After rearing, three groups of fish were tagged and stocked into a stream. The fish aged 6 months were caught from the stream. The fish were measured, weighed, identified to which experimental variant they belonged, and their survival rate was estimated. No significant differences in survival rate, length, weight, or condition factor among the control, DMSO, and MeOH groups were noted during larval development in a closed recirculating system. These parameters were also similar in the control and experimental groups after the fish had grow in a natural stream. The use of frozen semen to fertilize fresh sea trout eggs resulted in a normal incubation process, larval stage, and regular fry growth and survival, both under laboratory conditions, and, most importantly, in the wild. The results indicate it is possible to use frozen semen for fry production and the restoration of wild fish populations.

Abstract

According to the world health organization report from September 2016, the development of pathogenic bacteria resistance to antimicrobial drugs is one of the most important problems of the modern medicine. In this regard, the urgent task is the search for alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections. One approach to solving this problem is obtaining antimicrobial compounds synthesized by probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The probiotic strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, was chosen to study its antimicrobial action. This strain produces at least two bacteriocins – plantaricin EF and plantaricin NC8. The chromatographic isolation of peptide fractions from the supernatant was carried out using a polymer sorbent based on methacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. Optimal parameters for chromatographic process were determined. It is shown that all the target biologically active substances were bound with the sorbent in sorption at acidic pH values. Elution was performed in isocratic mode. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained peptide fractions against indicator culture was determined by turbidimetric method. During incubation process, the turbidity of the microbial suspension was determined by measuring the optical density at λ = 600 nm. It is revealed that the fraction obtained at rinse by eluent with pH 8 has the maximum inhibitory ability. Сhromatomass-spectrometry analysis of the peptide fraction was carried out using Shimadzu LCMS-8040.The antimicrobial activity of the fraction is comparable to the action of ampicillin against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. To confirm the peptide nature of the antimicrobial activity of the fraction, an indicator culture was incubated with the fraction treated with proteolytic enzymes (trypsin). It is determined the fraction can be stored at −18 °C and saves antimicrobial properties after defrosting.

derivatisation processes by adding internal standard mixture (1,2-(15N2, 13C) SEM, AMOZ-d5, (3C13) AHD, and AOZ-d4), 10 mL of the 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid, and 240 μL of 2-NBA (10 mg/mL in methanol). The samples were capped securely in the centrifuge tubes and vortexed for 30 s, then placed in a water bath at 40 ± 3°C and incubated overnight. After the incubation process, the samples were removed from the water bath and cooled down to room temperature. The pH-value of about 7.0 was adjusted by the addition of 10 mL of 0.2 mol/L di-potassium hydrogen orthophosphate solution