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[1] Ammann, R., W., Eckert, J. (1996): Cestodes: Echinococcus. In: Weinstock, J.V. (Ed) Parasitic diseases of the liver and intestines. Philadelphia PA, Saunders, pp. 655–689 [2] Antolová, D., Reiterová, K. (2010): Influence of Echinococcus multilocularis infection on reproduction and cellular immune response of mice. Parasite Immunol., 32: 384–387. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01194.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01194.x [3] Auer, H., Hermentin, K., Aspöck, H. (1988): Demonstration of a Specific Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen in the

kinetics of the mucosal immune responses in mice. Exp. Parasitol., 75: 99–111 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-4894(92)90125-T [7] Dick, T. A., Wright, K. A. (1973): The ultrastructure of cuticle of the nematode Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802). I. The body cuticle of larvae males, and females, and observation on its development. Can. J. Zool., 51: 187–196 [8] Gilioli, R., Andrade, L. A. G., Passos, L. A. C., Silva, F. A., Rodrigues, D. M., Guaraldo, A. M. A. (2000): Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under different

activation of an immune response. 11 Radiotherapy is one of the principal treatment modalities for primary tumors and their metastases. 12 Nowadays, irradiation is widely investigated for its associated effects on priming antitumor immunity. 13 There is growing evidence of irradiation’s effect on the antitumor immune response, inducing immunogenic cell death and generating danger signals. An important danger signal after irradiation is DNA released from the nucleus of dying cells. This DNA is recognized by the immune system as a DAMP, and can promote the activation of

-267. 12. Wuryastuti H.J., Stowe H.D., Bull R.W., Miller E.R.: Effects of vitamin E and selenium on immune responses of peripheral blood, colostrum, and milk leukocytes of sows. J Anim Sci 1993, 71, 2464-2472.

acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS. Acta Parasitol 2014, 59:310–315. 12. Spencer JA, Deinnocentes P, Moyana EM, Guarino AJ, Ellison SE, Bird RC, Blagburn BL. Cytokine gene expression in response to SnSAG1 in horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005, 12:644–646. 13. Olias P, Meyer A, Klopfleisch R, Lierz M, Kaspers B, Gruber AD: Modulation of the host Th1 immune response in pigeon protozoal encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis calchasi. Vet Res 2013, 44:10. 14. Shapira S, Speirs K

-70. 13. Kopitar AN, Stegel V, Tepes B, Gubina M, Novaković S, Ihan A. Specific T cell responses to Helicobacter pylori predict successful eradication therapy. J Infect 2007; 54: 257-61. 14. Obermajer N, Magister S, Kopitar AN, Tepes B, Ihan A, Kos J. Cathepsin X prevents an effective immune response against Helicobacter pylori infection. Eur J Cell Biol 2009; 88: 461-71. 15. Cario E, Brown D, McKee M, Lynch-Devaney K, Gerken G, Podolsky DK. Commensal-associated molecular patterns induce selective toll-like receptor-trafficking from apical membrane to

., 85: 1217-1240. Mikulski D., Zduńczyk Z., Jankowski J., Juśkiewicz J. (2008). Effects of organic acids or natural plant extracts added to diets for turkeys on growth performance, gastrointestinal tract metabolism and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 17: 233-246. Mohebbifar A., Torki M. (2011). Growth performance and humoral immune response of broiler chicks fed diets containing graded levels of ground date pits withamixture of dried garlic and thyme. Global Veterinaria, 6: 389-398. Namkung H., Li M., Gong J., Yu H., Cottrill M.,de Lang C.F.M. (2004

.E.(2005). The role of supplementary dietary antioxidants on immune response in puppies. Vet. Ther., 6: 43–56. Kierończyk B., Rawski M., Pawełczyk P., Rozynska J., Golusik J., Mikolajczak Z., Jozefiak D.(2018). Do insects smell attractive to dogs? A comparison of dog reactions to insects and commercial feed aromas – a preliminary study. Ann. Anim. Sci., 18: 795–800. Lei X.J., Kim T.H., Park J.H., Kim I.H.(2019). Evaluation of supplementation of defatted black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens ) larvae meal in beagle dogs. Ann. Anim. Sci., 19: 767–777. Li H., Inoue A

References Abd El-Naby A.S., Khattaby A.E.-R.A., Samir F., Awad S.M.M., Abdel-Tawwab M.(2019). Stimulatory effect of dietary butyrate on growth, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 254: 114212. Abdel-Tawwab M.(2016). Feed supplementation to freshwater fish: Experimental approaches. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Abdel-Tawwab M., Monier M.N.(2018). Stimulatory effect of dietary taurine on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, antioxidant capacity

ABSTRACT -

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of constant importance as causative microbial agent, maintained by subclinical infections in wild and domestic animals. Currently, for active immunization in dogs is used an inactivated vaccine, produced by specialized companies in different countries. The vast majority are polyvalent vaccines, which include the two leptospire serovars (Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohaemorhagiae) and viral antigens for prevention of infectious hepatitis Rubarht, Carré's disease, coronavirus and parainfluence. Specific immunity induced by this inactivated vaccine, is active, individual, installs in 10 to 21 days after administration, lasting a variable time (4-6 months) and never causes a 100% protection. This paper aims to investigate how this immune response in carnivores and its protection.