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Temperature is considered a complicated external factor of the susceptibility of stainless steels to the pitting. This paper deals with the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316Ti stainless steel in temperature range 22 - 80°C in aggressive chloride environments (3 and 5% FeCl3 solutions). The corrosion resistance of tested steel is evaluated on the base of results of exposure immersion tests and cyclic potentiodynamic tests. According to the obtained results the resistance of AISI 316Ti to the pitting is markedly affected by temperature changes in the range 22 – 80°C. Intensity of corrosion attack increases with the rise of Cl concentration. Gentle changes of temperature and Cl concentration cause significant differences in character of local damage. The appearance of pitted surfaces changes with the rise of the temperature (a density of pitting increases, a size of pits decreases). The strongest change in appearance is observed between 40 and 50ºC.


Elemental iron and manganese powders were blended to form mixtures containing 25, 30 and 35wt.% Mn. Mixtures were compressed into prismatic bars and sintered. Some of the bars were repressed and resintered. Compared to a bar pressed and sintered once, the bar pressed and sintered twice possessed a higher relative density, a higher bending stiffness, and a grid microindentation data set with a lower variance. Bars were immersed in Hank's solution for eight weeks. After this procedure, the bending stiffness were found reduced for all bars except for those pressed, sintered and only repressed, the bending stiffness of which remained unchanged. The repressing has most likely closed up throats connecting the clusters of pores with the free surface of a bar, reducing thus a surface area exposed to a corrosive attack. The resintering has opened up those throats, the electrolyte could fill accessible pores and corrosion weakened the near-surface material, reducing thus a bar's bending stiffness.


Water absorption and surface blistering behaviour was studied for polyester-matrix laminates with SiO2 nanoparticle reinforced gel coats. Accelerated water immersion tests at 37°C showed that addition of 10% nanoparticles increases blisters incubation time by ca. 50% compared to 5% and 0% nanoparticles composites.


AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel is recommended and used for various applications in industry, architecture and medicine. Presence of halides in environment evokes a possibility of the local corrosion which limits seriously exploitation of this material in aggressive conditions. The presented paper is focused on the pitting corrosion resistance (“as received” steel surface) in 1M chloride solution (pH=1.2) at a common (20 °C) and an elevated (50 °C) ambient temperatures. 24-hours exposure immersion test (ASTM G48) and cyclic potentiodynamic test (ASTM G61) are used as the independent test methods. The exposure immersion test is carried out with cross-rolled and longitudinally rolled specimens and the effect of direction of rolling on the resistance to pitting is studied.


This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of steel by static immersion tests in biodiesel obtained from three different types of vegetable oils (sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and corn oil) at room temperature for 49 days. At the end of the test, corrosion behavior was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes in physical and chemical properties of biodiesel. Biodiesel samples were analyzed to investigate density, dynamic viscosity, acidity index, refractive index and saponification index. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, steel was more susceptible to corrosion in biodiesel from corn oil as compared to biodiesel from sunflower oil and rapeseed oil.


Biodegradable metallic implants are materials that serve as a temporary implants and scaffolds. They degrade directly in vivo and therefore eliminate need for secondary surgical intervention. They are often made of metals such as magnesium, iron, zinc and can be modified by coating with the inorganic or polymeric layer. In this work iron-based biomaterial was prepared and modified with polymeric (polyethyleneimine, PEI) layer. Its degradation behavior was studied under conditions of simulated body fluids at 37 ± 0.2 °C in the form of static immersion tests. It has been shown that the surface modification caused an acceleration of degradation of the material and also had an influence on the corrosion mechanism.


Mechanical behaviour was compared for glass/polyester laminates manufactured in the boatbuilding plant using three methods: hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, infusion. Specimens were tested in dry condition and following accelerated water immersion test (70°C- corresponding to the exposure of 30 years at 19°C). In three point bending test 40-50% reduction in laminate strength was observed due to water immersion. The highest degradation was in samples manufactured using hand lay-up method, the differences in strength between both vacuum methods were insignificant. Interlaminar shear strength was reduced by 25% for infusion method which is recommended as the most efficient. Matrix plasticization and debondings as well as surface microcracks were responsible for reduction in strength for water conditioned specimens. However, no microstructural difference in type or intensity of internal damage was observed for the three sample types.


Ketamine and magnesium can interact in additive, supra-additive and antagonistic manners in analgesia or anesthesia. Ketamine is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Magnesium is an endogenous non-competitive NMDA antagonist that causes anion channel blockade in a dose-dependent manner. It has been established that ketamine and magnesium interact synergistically in the tail-immersion test in rats.

To determine the role of serotonergic, GABAergic and noradrenergic systems in analgesia induced by the ketamine-magnesium sulfate combination.

Experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g). Antinociception was evaluated by the tail-immersion test.

Methysergide (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) administered alone did not affect nociception in rats. Methysergide (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5mg/kg) combination. Bicuculline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) given alone did not change the threshold to thermal stimuli in rats. Bicuculline (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, sc) antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5 mg/kg) combination. Yohimbine (0.5, 1 and 3 mg/kg, sc) applied alone did not change nociception. Yohimbine at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg did not influence the effect of ketamine (5 mg/kg)-magnesium sulfate (5 mg/kg), while yohimbine at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg antagonized the antinociceptive effect of this combination.

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic systems participate, at least in part, in the antinociceptive effect of the ketamine-magnesium sulfate combination in acute pain in rats.


Fentanyl [N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide] is a potent opioid analgesic agent, but a has narrow therapeutic index. We reported earlier on the synthesis and bioefficacy of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs (1-4) in mice. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of four additional analogs, viz. N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), N-tbutyl- 3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6), isopropyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (7) and t-butyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (8). The median lethal dose (LD50) determined by intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes suggests these analogs to be comparatively less toxic than fentanyl. On the basis of observational assessment on spontaneous activities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, all the analogs were found to be similar to fentanyl. Naloxone hydrochloride abolished the neurotoxic effects of these analogs, thereby ascertaining their opioid receptor-mediated effects. All the analogs displayed significant analgesic effects, measured by formalin-induced hind paw licking and tail immersion tests at their respective median effective dose (ED50). They also exhibited 8-12 fold increase in therapeutic index over fentanyl. However, 5 and 6 alone produced lower ED50 (20.5 and 21.0 μg/kg, respectively) and higher potency ratio (1.37 and 1.33, respectively) compared to fentanyl. They could thus be considered for further studies on pain management


The effects of chloride concentration, creviced scaling factor and immersion time on the percentage area and maximum depth of attack for Type 304 stainless steel (SS304) in chloride solutions were investigated. The crevice assembly comprised of coupon (SS-304), polytetrafluoroethylene (crevice former) and fasteners (titanium bolt, nut and washers). The full immersion tests were based on ASTM G-78 using full factorial design to study the effects of chloride concentration (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 w/w%), crevice scaling factor (8, 16 and 24) and immersion time (15, 30 and 45 days) on the percentage area of attack (Y1) and maximum depth of attack (Y2) of SS-304. Data obtained was used to develop and optimize the models of Y1 and Y2 in terms of the three factors using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The R2 of Y1 and Y2 were 0.98 and 0.91, respectively. The minimum Y1 (5.63%) and Y2 (3.32×10−7 mm) were obtained at 4.5% chloride concentration, 20 scaling factor and 15 days immersion time. The predicted optimal conditions agreed with the experimental results for validation with a maximum absolute relative error of 5.75%.